• chronic diseases;
  • older people;
  • reliability;
  • Chinese version of Short-form Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scales;
  • validity

Aims and objectives

To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Short-form Chronic Disease Self Efficacy Scales.


The prevalence of chronic disease is accelerating globally, advancing across every region and pervading all socioeconomic classes. Among the interventions, self-management programmes focusing on increasing self-efficacy have demonstrated significant patient outcomes, including the improvement of quality of life and functional status. The Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scales (CDSES) system developed by Lorig in 1996 has been widely used by healthcare professionals from different disciplines to measure self-efficacy for chronic disease patients due to their tested psychometric properties. The Short-form of the scales system is used today, as it takes substantially less time to administer.


This study used psychometric testing to establish the validity and reliability of the Short-form Chronic Disease Self-Efficacy Scales (CDSES).


A convenience sample of 163 older patients with chronic diseases were recruited. The Chinese version of the CDSES, short-form CDSES, SF-36 and self-rated health were used to test for construct validity, concurrent validity, convergent validity and internal consistency.


Short-form CDSES had a single-factor structure with high internal consistency (0·96) and demonstrated no floor or ceiling effects. High intraclass correlation, 0·98, was demonstrated in test–retest. Correlations with the domain scores of the CDSES were found to be = 0·97 and 0·98. The scale also demonstrated significant moderate correlations with SF-36 and self-rated health.


The Chinese version of the Short-form CDSES has shown statistically acceptable levels of reliability and validity for assessing self-efficacy in older patients with chronic diseases.

Relevance to clinical practice

The scale is particularly valuable for use among older patients with chronic illness. The questionnaire can be used to assess nursing interventions focusing on increasing patients' self-efficacy or routine patient screening in carrying out daily activities.