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Keywords:

  • adaptation;
  • mammography;
  • the Champion's Health Belief Model;
  • translation;
  • Turkish

Aims and objectives

To examine the translation and adaptation process from English to Turkish and the validity and reliability of the Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening. Its aim (1) is to provide data about and (2) to assess Turkish women's attitudes and behaviours towards mammography.

Background

The proportion of women who have mammography is lower in Turkey. The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening-Turkish version can be helpful to determine Turkish women's health beliefs, particularly about mammography.

Design

Cross-sectional design was used to collect survey data from Turkish women: classical measurement method.

Methods

The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening was translated from English to Turkish. Again, it was back translated into English. Later, the meaning and clarity of the scale items were evaluated by a bilingual group representing the culture of the target population. Finally, the tool was evaluated by two bilingual professional researchers in terms of content validity, translation validity and psychometric estimates of the validity and reliability. The analysis included a total of 209 Turkish women. The validity of the scale was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis and criterion-related validity testing.

Results

The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening aligned to four factors that were coherent and relatively independent of each other. There was a statistically significant relationship among all of the subscale items: the positive and high correlation of the total item test score and high Cronbach's α. The scale has a strong stability over time: the Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening demonstrated acceptable preliminary values of reliability and validity.

Conclusion

The Champion's Health Belief Model Scales for Mammography Screening is both a reliable and valid instrument that can be useful in measuring the health beliefs of Turkish women.

Relevance to clinical practice

It can be used to provide data about healthcare practices required for mammography screening and breast cancer prevention. This scale will show nurses that nursing intervention planning is essential for increasing Turkish women's participation in mammography screening.