Person-centred ward climate as experienced by mentally lucid residents in long-term care facilities

Authors

  • Ådel Bergland PhD, RN,

    Associate Professor, Corresponding author
    1. Lovisenberg Diaconal University College, Oslo, Norway
    • Correspondence: Ådel Bergland, Associate Professor, Lovisenberg Diaconal University College, Lovisenberggaten 15, 0456 Oslo, Norway. Telephone: +47 22358200.

      E-mail: aadel.bergland@ldh.no

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  • Dag Hofoss PhD,

    Professor
    1. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
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  • Marit Kirkevold RN, EdD,

    Professor
    1. Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
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  • Tove Vassbø RN, MNSc,

    Assistant Professor
    1. Gjøvik University College, Gjøvik, Norway
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  • David Edvardsson PhD, RN

    Associate Professor and Director of Research
    1. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Vic., Australia
    2. Department of Nursing, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
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Abstract

Aims and objectives

To assess the content validity and reliability of the Person-centred Climate Questionnaire-Patient version in long-term care facilities, to describe residents' perceptions of the extent to which their ward climate was person-centred and to explore whether person-centredness was associated with facility and resident characteristics, such as facility and ward size, having a sensory garden and having a primary caregiver.

Background

The importance of the physical environment to persons with dementia has been investigated. However, research is lacking regarding the extent to which mentally lucid residents experience their physical and psycho-social ward climate as person-centred and the factors influencing their experience.

Design

Cross-sectional survey design.

Methods

The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire–Patient version was translated into Norwegian with forward and backward translation. The content validity index for scales was assessed. The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire –Patient version was completed by 145 mentally lucid residents in 17 Norwegian long-term care facilities. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's α and item–total correlations. Test–retest reliability was assessed by paired samples t-test and Spearman's correlation. To explore differences based on facility and resident characteristics, independent-samples t-test and one-way anova were used.

Results

The content validity index for scales was satisfactory. The Person-centred Climate Questionnaire–Patient version was internally consistent and had satisfactory test–retest reliability. The climate was experienced as highly person-centred. No significant differences were found, except that residents in larger facilities experienced the climate as more person-centred in relation to everyday activities (subscale 2) than residents in smaller facilities.

Conclusion

The Norwegian version of the Person-centred Climate Questionnaire–Patient version can be regarded as reliable in a long-term care facility context. Perceived degree of person-centredness was not associated with facility or resident characteristics, such as the number of residents, having a sensory garden or knowing that one has a primary caregiver.

Relevance to clinical practice

A person-centred climate can be attained in different kinds of long-term care facilities.

Ancillary