SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Camm AJ, Kirchhof P, Lip GY et al. Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the Task Force for the Management of Atrial Fibrillation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Europace 2010; 12: 13601420.
  • 2
    Camm AJ, Lip GY, De Caterina R et al. 2012 focused update of the ESC guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: an update of the 2010 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation * Developed with the special contribution of the European Heart Rhythm Association. Europace 2012; 14: 13851413.
  • 3
    Go AS, Hylek EM, Phillips KA et al. Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study. JAMA 2001; 285: 23702375.
  • 4
    Wolf PA, Abbott RD, Kannel WB. Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study. Stroke 1991; 22: 983988.
  • 5
    Lloyd-Jones DM, Wang TJ, Leip EP et al. Lifetime risk for development of atrial fibrillation: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2004; 110: 10421046.
  • 6
    Fuster V, Ryden LE, Cannom DS et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: full text: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation) developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society. Europace 2006; 8: 651745.
  • 7
    Goldstein LB, Bushnell CD, Adams RJ et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2011; 42: 517584.
  • 8
    Hirsh J, Guyatt G, Albers GW, Harrington R, Schunemann HJ; American College of Chest Physician. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133: 110S112S.
  • 9
    Hart RG, Pearce LA, Aguilar MI. Meta-analysis: antithrombotic therapy to prevent stroke in patients who have nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Ann Intern Med 2007; 146: 857867.
  • 10
    Connolly S, Pogue J, Hart R et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2006; 367: 19031912.
  • 11
    Holbrook AM, Pereira JA, Labiris R et al. Systematic overview of warfarin and its drug and food interactions. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 10951106.
  • 12
    Rane A, Lindh JD. Pharmacogenetics of anticoagulants. Hum Genomics Proteomics 2010; 2010: 754919.
  • 13
    Kimmel SE. Warfarin therapy: in need of improvement after all these years. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2008; 9: 677686.
  • 14
    Gage BF, Waterman AD, Shannon W, Boechler M, Rich MW, Radford MJ. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA 2001; 285: 28642870.
  • 15
    Lee BH, Park JS, Park JH et al. The effect and safety of the antithrombotic therapies in patients with atrial fibrillation and CHADS score 1. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 2010; 21: 501507.
  • 16
    Mant J, Hobbs FD, Fletcher K et al. Warfarin versus aspirin for stroke prevention in an elderly community population with atrial fibrillation (the Birmingham Atrial Fibrillation Treatment of the Aged Study, BAFTA): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007; 370: 493503.
  • 17
    Lip GY, Nieuwlaat R, Pisters R, Lane DA, Crijns HJ. Refining clinical risk stratification for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation using a novel risk factor-based approach: the euro heart survey on atrial fibrillation. Chest 2010; 137: 263272.
  • 18
    Olesen JB, Lip GY, Hansen ML et al. Validation of risk stratification schemes for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation: nationwide cohort study. BMJ 2011; 342: d124.
  • 19
    Hijazi Z, Oldgren J, Andersson U et al. Troponin I elevation increases the risk of death and stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation [abstract]. European Society of Cardiology 2010 Web site. http://spo.escardio.org/AbstractDetails.aspx?id=93081. Accessed December 5, 2011.
  • 20
    Hijazi Z, Oldgren J, Andersson U et al. NT-proBNP is prognostic for stroke and death in atrial fibrillation – a RELY substudy [abstract]. American Heart Association 2010 Web site. http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/meeting_abstract/122/21_MeetingAbstracts/A13472?sid=16cd2be4-781c-41c9-8af9-11880b3c85d5. Accessed December 5, 2011.
  • 21
    Pisters R, Lane DA, Nieuwlaat R, de Vos CB, Crijns HJ, Lip GY. A novel user-friendly score (HAS-BLED) to assess 1-year risk of major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation: the Euro Heart Survey. Chest 2010; 138: 10931100.
  • 22
    Olesen JB, Lip GY, Hansen PR et al. Bleeding risk in ‘real world’ patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison of two established bleeding prediction schemes in a nationwide cohort. J Thromb Haemost 2011; 9: 14601467.
  • 23
    Fang MC, Go AS, Chang Y et al. A new risk scheme to predict warfarin-associated hemorrhage: the ATRIA (Anticoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation) Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 58: 395401.
  • 24
    Olesen JB, Lip GY, Lindhardsen J et al. Risks of thromboembolism and bleeding with thromboprophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation: a net clinical benefit analysis using a ‘real world’ nationwide cohort study. Thromb Haemost 2011; 106: 739749.
  • 25
    Rose AJ, Ozonoff A, Henault LE, Hylek EM. Warfarin for atrial fibrillation in community-based practise. J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6: 16471654.
  • 26
    Connolly SJ, Pogue J, Eikelboom J et al. Benefit of oral anticoagulant over antiplatelet therapy in atrial fibrillation depends on the quality of international normalized ratio control achieved by centers and countries as measured by time in therapeutic range. Circulation 2008; 118: 20292037.
  • 27
    Wallentin L, Yusuf S, Ezekowitz MD et al. Efficacy and safety of dabigatran compared with warfarin at different levels of international normalised ratio control for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the RE-LY trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 975983.
  • 28
    Morgan CL, McEwan P, Tukiendorf A, Robinson PA, Clemens A, Plumb JM. Warfarin treatment in patients with atrial fibrillation: observing outcomes associated with varying levels of INR control. Thromb Res 2009; 124: 3741.
  • 29
    Gallagher AM, Setakis E, Plumb JM, Clemens A, van Staa TP. Risks of stroke and mortality associated with suboptimal anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation patients. Thromb Haemost 2011; 106: 968977.
  • 30
    Hylek EM, Go AS, Chang Y et al. Effect of intensity of oral anticoagulation on stroke severity and mortality in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 10191026.
  • 31
    Gladstone DJ, Bui E, Fang J et al. Potentially preventable strokes in high-risk patients with atrial fibrillation who are not adequately anticoagulated. Stroke 2009; 40: 235240.
  • 32
    Jones M, McEwan P, Morgan CL, Peters JR, Goodfellow J, Currie CJ. Evaluation of the pattern of treatment, level of anticoagulation control, and outcome of treatment with warfarin in patients with non-valvar atrial fibrillation: a record linkage study in a large British population. Heart 2005; 91: 472477.
  • 33
    Flaherty ML, Kissela B, Woo D et al. The increasing incidence of anticoagulant-associated intracerebral hemorrhage. Neurology 2007; 68: 116121.
  • 34
    Huhtakangas J, Tetri S, Juvela S, Saloheimo P, Bode MK, Hillbom M. Effect of increased warfarin use on warfarin-related cerebral hemorrhage: a longitudinal population-based study. Stroke 2011; 42: 24312435.
  • 35
    Kleindorfer D, Broderick J, Khoury J et al. The unchanging incidence and case-fatality of stroke in the 1990s: a population-based study. Stroke 2006; 37: 24732478.
  • 36
    Fang MC, Go AS, Chang Y et al. Death and disability from warfarin-associated intracranial and extracranial hemorrhages. Am J Med 2007; 120: 700705.
  • 37
    Fang MC, Chang Y, Hylek EM et al. Advanced age, anticoagulation intensity, and risk for intracranial hemorrhage among patients taking warfarin for atrial fibrillation. Ann Intern Med 2004; 141: 745752.
  • 38
    Singer DE, Chang Y, Fang MC et al. Should patient characteristics influence target anticoagulation intensity for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation?: the ATRIA study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2009; 2: 297304.
  • 39
    Hylek EM, Skates SJ, Sheehan MA, Singer DE. An analysis of the lowest effective intensity of prophylactic anticoagulation for patients with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 540546. PubMed PMID: 8678931.
  • 40
    Hylek EM, Singer DE. Risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage in outpatients taking warfarin. Ann Intern Med 1994; 120: 897902. PubMed PMID: 8172435.
  • 41
    De Caterina R, Connolly SJ, Pogue J et al. Mortality predictors and effects of antithrombotic therapies in atrial fibrillation: insights from ACTIVE-W. Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 21332140.
  • 42
    Bungard TJ, Ghali WA, Teo KK, McAlister FA, Tsuyuki RT. Why do patients with atrial fibrillation not receive warfarin? Arch Intern Med 2000; 160: 4146.
  • 43
    Frykman V, Beerman B, Ryden L, Rosenqvist M. Management of atrial fibrillation: discrepancy between guideline recommendations and actual practice exposes patients to risk for complications. Eur Heart J 2001; 22: 19541959.
  • 44
    Johnston JA, Cluxton RJ Jr, Heaton PC, Guo JJ, Moomaw CJ, Eckman MH. Predictors of warfarin use among Ohio Medicaid patients with new-onset nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Arch Intern Med 2003; 163: 17051710.
  • 45
    Go AS, Hylek EM, Borowsky LH, Phillips KA, Selby JV, Singer DE. Warfarin use among ambulatory patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: the anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation (ATRIA) study. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 927934.
  • 46
    Hylek EM, D'Antonio J, Evans-Molina C, Shea C, Henault LE, Regan S. Translating the results of randomized trials into clinical practice: the challenge of warfarin candidacy among hospitalized elderly patients with atrial fibrillation. Stroke 2006; 37: 10751080.
  • 47
    Sinnaeve PR, Brueckmann M, Clemens A, Oldgren J, Eikelboom J, Healey JS. Stroke prevention in elderly patients with atrial fibrillation: challenges for anticoagulation. J Intern Med 2012; 271: 1524.
  • 48
    Gallagher AM, Rietbrock S, Plumb J, van Staa TP. Initiation and persistence of warfarin or aspirin in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation in general practice: do the appropriate patients receive stroke prophylaxis? J Thromb Haemost 2008; 6: 15001506.
  • 49
    Coumadin® tablets (Warfarin Sodium Tablets UC [package insert]. Princeton, NJ, USA: Bristol-Myers Squibb; 2010. Available at: http://packageinserts.bms.com/pi/pi_coumadin.pdf.
  • 50
    Tripodi A, Palareti G. New anticoagulant drugs for treatment of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. J Intern Med 2012; 271: 554565.
  • 51
    Becattini C, Lignani A, Agnelli G. New anticoagulants for the prevention of venous thromboembolism. Drug Des Devel Ther 2010; 4: 4960.
  • 52
    Ogawa S, Koretsune Y, Yasaka M et al. Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: evaluation and positioning of new oral anticoagulant agents. Circ J 2011; 75: 15391547.
  • 53
    Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S et al. Dabigatran versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 11391151.
  • 54
    Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, Reilly PA, Wallentin L. Newly identified events in the RE-LY trial. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 18751876.
  • 55
    Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ et al. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 981992.
  • 56
    Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J et al. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 883891.
  • 57
    Connolly SJ, Eikelboom J, Joyner C et al. Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 364: 806817.
  • 58
    Connolly SJ, Pogue J, Hart RG et al. Effect of clopidogrel added to aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 20662078.
  • 59
    Cairns JA, Connolly S, McMurtry S, Stephenson M, Talajic M. Canadian Cardiovascular Society atrial fibrillation guidelines 2010: prevention of stroke and systemic thromboembolism in atrial fibrillation and flutter. Can J Cardiol 2011; 27: 7490.
  • 60
    Skanes AC, Healey JS, Cairns JA et al. Focused 2012 update of the canadian cardiovascular society atrial fibrillation guidelines: recommendations for stroke prevention and rate/rhythm control. Can J Cardiol 2012; 28: 125136.
  • 61
    Fuster V, Ryden LE, Cannom DS et al. ACCF/AHA/HRS focused updates incorporated into the ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines developed in partnership with the European Society of Cardiology and in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011; 57: e101e198.
  • 62
    You JJ, Singer DE, Howard PA et al. Antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141: e531Se575S.