• 1
    Johansen JS, Bojesen SE, Tybjaerg-Hansen A, Mylin AK, Price PA, Nordestgaard BG. Plasma YKL-40 and total and disease-specific mortality in the general population. Clin Chem 2010; 56: 158091.
  • 2
    Schultz NA, Johansen JS. YKL-40—A Protein in the Field of Translational Medicine: a Role as a Biomarker in Cancer Patients? Cancers 2010; 2: 145391.
  • 3
    Boot RG, van Achterberg TA, van Aken BE et al. Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1999; 19: 68794.
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    Kzhyshkowska J, Mamidi S, Gratchev A et al. Novel stabilin-1 interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP) is up-regulated in alternatively activated macrophages and secreted via lysosomal pathway. Blood 2006; 107: 32218.
  • 5
    Volck B, Ostergaard K, Johansen JS, Garbarsch C, Price PA. The distribution of YKL-40 in osteoarthritic and normal human articular cartilage. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28: 1719.
  • 6
    Ringsholt M, Hogdall EV, Johansen JS, Price PA, Christensen LH. YKL-40 protein expression in normal adult human tissues–an immunohistochemical study. J Mol Histol 2007; 38: 3343.
  • 7
    Kzhyshkowska J, Gratchev A, Goerdt S. Human chitinases and chitinase-like proteins as indicators for inflammation and cancer. Biomark Insights 2007; 2: 12846.
  • 8
    Johansen JS, Stoltenberg M, Hansen M et al. Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity. Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999; 38: 61826.
  • 9
    Johansen JS. Studies on serum YKL-40 as a biomarker in diseases with inflammation, tissue remodelling, fibroses and cancer. Dan Med Bull 2006; 53: 172209.
  • 10
    Kastrup J, Johansen JS, Winkel P et al. High serum YKL-40 concentration is associated with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J 2009; 30: 106672.
  • 11
    Kastrup J. Can YKL-40 be a new inflammatory biomarker in cardiovascular disease? Immunobiology 2012; 217: 48391.
  • 12
    Mathiasen AB, Harutyunyan MJ, Jorgensen E et al. Plasma YKL-40 in relation to the degree of coronary artery disease in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2011; 71: 43947.
  • 13
    Wang Y, Ripa RS, Johansen JS et al. YKL-40 a new biomarker in patients with acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease. Scand Cardiovasc J 2008; 42: 295302.
  • 14
    Bilim O, Takeishi Y, Kitahara T et al. Serum YKL-40 predicts adverse clinical outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. J Card Fail 2010; 16: 8739.
  • 15
    Harutyunyan M, Christiansen M, Johansen JS, Kober L, Torp-Petersen C, Kastrup J. The inflammatory biomarker YKL-40 as a new prognostic marker for all-cause mortality in patients with heart failure. Immunobiology 2012; 217: 6526.
  • 16
    Rathcke CN, Kistorp C, Raymond I et al. Plasma YKL-40 levels are elevated in patients with chronic heart failure. Scand Cardiovasc J 2010; 44: 929.
  • 17
    Kjaergaard AD, Bojesen SE, Johansen JS, Nordestgaard BG. Elevated plasma YKL-40 levels and ischemic stroke in the general population. Ann Neurol 2010; 68: 67280.
  • 18
    Nielsen AR, Erikstrup C, Johansen JS et al. Plasma YKL-40: a BMI-independent marker of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2008; 57: 307882.
  • 19
    Rathcke CN, Johansen JS, Vestergaard H. YKL-40, a biomarker of inflammation, is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes and is related to insulin resistance. Inflamm Res 2006; 55: 539.
  • 20
    Rathcke CN, Persson F, Tarnow L, Rossing P, Vestergaard H. YKL-40, a marker of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, is elevated in patients with type 1 diabetes and increases with levels of albuminuria. Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 3238.
  • 21
    Chupp GL, Lee CG, Jarjour N et al. A chitinase-like protein in the lung and circulation of patients with severe asthma. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 201627.
  • 22
    Specjalski K, Jassem E. YKL-40 Protein is a Marker of Asthma. J Asthma 2011; 48: 76772.
  • 23
    Letuve S, Kozhich A, Arouche N et al. YKL-40 is elevated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and activates alveolar macrophages. J Immunol 2008; 181: 516773.
  • 24
    Kronborg G, Ostergaard C, Weis N et al. Serum level of YKL-40 is elevated in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia and is associated with the outcome of the disease. Scand J Infect Dis 2002; 34: 3236.
  • 25
    Hattori N, Oda S, Sadahiro T et al. YKL-40 identified by proteomic analysis as a biomarker of sepsis. Shock 2009; 32: 393400.
  • 26
    Eurich K, Segawa M, Toei-Shimizu S, Mizoguchi E. Potential role of chitinase 3-like-1 in inflammation-associated carcinogenic changes of epithelial cells. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15: 524959.
  • 27
    Mizoguchi E, Mizoguchi A. Is the sugar always sweet in intestinal inflammation? Immunol Res 2007; 37: 4760.
  • 28
    Johansen JS, Kirwan JR, Price PA, Sharif M. Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: relation to joint destruction. Scand J Rheumatol 2001; 30: 297304.
  • 29
    Fontana RJ, Dienstag JL, Bonkovsky HL et al. Serum fibrosis markers are associated with liver disease progression in non-responder patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2010; 59: 14019.
  • 30
    Nojgaard C, Johansen JS, Christensen E, Skovgaard LT, Price PA, Becker U. Serum levels of YKL-40 and PIIINP as prognostic markers in patients with alcoholic liver disease. J Hepatol 2003; 39: 17986.
  • 31
    Bay M, Kirk V, Parner J et al. NT-proBNP: a new diagnostic screening tool to differentiate between patients with normal and reduced left ventricular systolic function. Heart 2003; 89: 1504.
  • 32
    Bojesen SE, Johansen JS, Nordestgaard BG. Plasma YKL-40 levels in healthy subjects from the general population. Clin Chim Acta 2011; 412: 70912.
  • 33
    Mascarenhas J, Azevedo A, Bettencourt P. Coexisting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heart failure: implications for treatment, course and mortality. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2010; 16: 10611.
  • 34
    Rutten FH, Cramer MJ, Lammers JW, Grobbee DE, Hoes AW. Heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an ignored combination? Eur J Heart Fail 2006; 8: 70611.
  • 35
    Hedegaard A, Ripa RS, Johansen JS, Jorgensen E, Kastrup J. Plasma YKL-40 and recovery of left ventricular function after acute myocardial infarction. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2010; 70: 806.
  • 36
    Nielsen AR, Plomgaard P, Krabbe KS, Johansen JS, Pedersen BK. IL-6, but not TNF-alpha, increases plasma YKL-40 in human subjects. Cytokine 2011; 55: 1525.
  • 37
    Mygind ND, Harutyunyan MJ, Mathiasen AB et al. The influence of statin treatment on the inflammatory biomarkers YKL-40 and HsCRP in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Inflamm Res 2011; 60: 2817.
  • 38
    Eurich K, Segawa M, Toei-Shimizu S, Mizoguchi E. Potential role of chitinase 3-like-1 in inflammation-associated carcinogenic changes of epithelial cells. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15: 524959.
  • 39
    Faibish M, Francescone R, Bentley B, Yan W, Shao R. A YKL-40-neutralizing antibody blocks tumor angiogenesis and progression: a potential therapeutic agent in cancers. Mol Cancer Ther 2011; 10: 74251.
  • 40
    Francescone RA, Scully S, Faibish M et al. Role of YKL-40 in the angiogenesis, radioresistance, and progression of glioblastoma. J Biol Chem 2011; 286: 1533243.
  • 41
    Lee CG, Da Silva CA, Dela Cruz CS et al. Role of chitin and chitinase/chitinase-like proteins in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and injury. Annu Rev Physiol 2011; 73: 479501.
  • 42
    Saidi A, Javerzat S, Bellahcene A et al. Experimental anti-angiogenesis causes upregulation of genes associated with poor survival in glioblastoma. Int J Cancer 2008; 122: 218798.
  • 43
    Shao R, Hamel K, Petersen L et al. YKL-40, a secreted glycoprotein, promotes tumor angiogenesis. Oncogene 2009; 28: 445668.
  • 44
    Brochner CB, Johansen JS, Larsen LA et al. YKL-40 Is Differentially Expressed in Human Embryonic Stem Cells and in Cell Progeny of the Three Germ Layers. J Histochem Cytochem 2012; 60: 188204.
  • 45
    Johansen JS, Hoyer PE, Larsen LA, Price PA, Mollgard K. YKL-40 protein expression in the early developing human musculoskeletal system. J Histochem Cytochem 2007; 55: 121328.
  • 46
    Lee CG, Hartl D, Lee GR et al. Role of breast regression protein 39 (BRP-39)/chitinase 3-like-1 in Th2 and IL-13-induced tissue responses and apoptosis. J Exp Med 2009; 206: 114966.