Relationship between vitamin D status and left ventricular geometry in a healthy population: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
The effects of vitamin D on the heart have been studied in patients with cardiac disease, but not in healthy persons. We investigated the relation between vitamin D status and left ventricular (LV) structure and function in community-dwelling subjects without heart disease.
The relationship between concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a marker of vitamin D reserve, and LV transthoracic echocardiography measures was analysed in 711 participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging who were without cardiac disease.
Mean 25(OH)D in the study population was 32.3 ± 11.4 ng mL−1; only 15.5% of subjects had moderate or severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 20 ng mL−1]. Adjusting for age, body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk factors, physical activity, calcium and parathyroid hormone, 25(OH)D was positively correlated with LV thickness (β 0.095, SE 0.039, P < 0.05) and LV mass index (β 7.5, SE 2.6, P < 0.01). A significant nonlinear relation between 25(OH)D and LV concentric remodelling was observed. LV remodelling was more likely in participants with 25(OH)D levels <30 ng mL−1 [odds ratio (OR) 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83–1.85] or ≥38 ng mL−1 (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.13–2.65), compared with those with 30–37 ng mL−1 25(OH)D. Consistently, LV relative wall thickness was significantly lower (P for trend=0.05), and LV diastolic internal diameter index (P for trend<0.05) and end-diastolic volume index (P for trend<0.05) were significantly higher in subjects with 30–37 ng mL−1 25(OH)D compared to the rest of the study population. There was a significant interaction between 25(OH)D and hypertension on the risk of LV hypertrophy (P < 0.05).
In a population-based sample of predominantly vitamin D-sufficient subjects without heart disease, LV geometry was most favourable at intermediate 25(OH)D concentrations.