Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome – a randomized study (SYSDIET)
Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2013
© 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine
Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 274, Issue 1, pages 52–66, July 2013
How to Cite
University of Eastern Finland; Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; University of Oulu, Oulu; Finland; Lund University; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Uppsala University, Uppsala; Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun, Sweden; University of Eastern Finland; Kuopio, Finland; University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Aarhus University Hospital; Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark; Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Ås; Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences Oslo, Norway; University of Iceland and Landspitali – The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo, Finland; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and inflammation markers in metabolic syndrome – a randomized study (SYSDIET). J Intern Med 2013; 274: 52‒66., , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
- Issue online: 11 JUN 2013
- Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 7 FEB 2013 02:24PM EST
- cardiovascular risk;
- metabolic syndrome;
- Nordic diet
Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome.
We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18–24 weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55 years, BMI 31.6 kg m−2, 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids.
Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (−0.18, mmol L−1 95% CI −0.35; −0.01, P = 0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (−0.15, −0.28; −0.00, P = 0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (−0.04, −0.07; −0.00, P = 0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference −84, −133; −37 ng L−1, P = 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P = 0.049) and magnesium (mg, −0.23, −0.41; −0.05, P = 0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra.
Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.