A Palaeolithic-type diet causes strong tissue-specific effects on ectopic fat deposition in obese postmenopausal women
Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013
© 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine
Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 274, Issue 1, pages 67–76, July 2013
How to Cite
Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology & Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, Tuebingen, Germany; MRC Epidemiology Unit, Cambridge, UK; Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland A Palaeolithic-type diet causes strong tissue-specific effects on ectopic fat deposition in obese postmenopausal women. J Intern Med 2013; 274: 67‒76., , , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 11 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 15 FEB 2013 09:56AM EST
- Swedish Medical Research Council
- Heart and Lung Foundation
- Västerbotten County Council
- Medical Faculty at Umeå University
- adipose tissue;
- fatty liver;
- insulin resistance;
Ectopic fat accumulation in liver and skeletal muscle may be an essential link between abdominal obesity, insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease after menopause. We hypothesized that a diet containing a relatively high content of protein and unsaturated fat [mainly monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs)] but limited carbohydrates and saturated fat would reduce lipid content in liver and muscle and increase insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women.
Ten healthy, nonsmoking postmenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) >27 (28–35) kg m−2 were included in the study.
Participants were instructed to consume an ad libitum Palaeolithic-type diet intended to provide approximately 30 energy percentage (E%) protein, 40 E% fat (mainly MUFAs) and 30 E% carbohydrate. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) levels in calf muscles and liver triglyceride levels were quantified using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) before and 5 weeks after dietary intervention. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) indices and the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp technique.
Mean energy intake decreased by 25% with a weight loss of 4.5 kg. BMI, waist and hip circumference, waist/hip ratio and abdominal sagittal diameter also decreased significantly, as did diastolic blood pressure (mean −7 mmHg), levels of fasting serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL/HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), urinary C-peptide and HOMA indices. Whole-body insulin sensitivity did not change. Liver triglyceride levels decreased by 49%, whereas IMCL levels in skeletal muscle were not significantly altered.
A modified Palaeolithic-type diet has strong and tissue-specific effects on ectopic lipid deposition in postmenopausal women.