• 1
    Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. http://wwwgoldcopdcom/GuidelinesResources, 2011.
  • 2
    Postma D, Anzueto A, Calverley P et al. A new perspective on optimal care for patients with COPD. Prim Care Respir J 2011; 20: 2059.
  • 3
    Donaldson GC, Seemungal TA, Bhowmik A, Wedzicha JA. Relationship between exacerbation frequency and lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2002; 57: 84752.
  • 4
    Fabbri LM, Luppi F, Beghe B, Rabe KF. Update in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2005. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 105665.
  • 5
    Soler-Cataluna JJ, Martinez-Garcia MA. Roman Sanchez P, Salcedo E, Navarro M, Ochando R. Severe acute exacerbations and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2005; 60: 92531.
  • 6
    Andersson F, Borg S, Jansson SA et al. The costs of exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respir Med 2002; 96: 7008.
  • 7
    Wouters EF. Economic analysis of the Confronting COPD survey: an overview of results. Respir Med 2003; 97 (Suppl C): S314.
  • 8
    Hurst JR, Vestbo J, Anzueto A et al. Susceptibility to exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 112838.
  • 9
    Jenkins CR, Celli B, Anderson JA et al. Seasonality and determinants of moderate and severe COPD exacerbations in the TORCH study. Eur Respir J 2012; 39: 3845.
  • 10
    Jones PW, Willits LR, Burge PS, Calverley PM. Disease severity and the effect of fluticasone propionate on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: 6873.
  • 11
    Calverley PM, Boonsawat W, Cseke Z, Zhong N, Peterson S, Olsson H. Maintenance therapy with budesonide and formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 2003; 22: 9129.
  • 12
    Szafranski W, Cukier A, Ramirez A et al. Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Respir J 2003; 21: 7481.
  • 13
    Wedzicha JA, Calverley PM, Seemungal TA, Hagan G, Ansari Z, Stockley RA. The prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations by salmeterol/fluticasone propionate or tiotropium bromide. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 177: 1926.
  • 14
    Calverley P, Pauwels R, Vestbo J et al. Combined salmeterol and fluticasone in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361: 44956.
  • 15
    Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B et al. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 77589.
  • 16
    Calverley PM, Spencer S, Willits L, Burge PS, Jones PW. Withdrawal from treatment as an outcome in the ISOLDE study of COPD. Chest 2003; 124: 13506.
  • 17
    Vestbo J, Anderson JA, Calverley PM et al. Bias due to withdrawal in long-term randomised trials in COPD: evidence from the TORCH study. Clin Respir J 2011; 5: 449.
  • 18
    Blais L, Forget A, Ramachandran S. Relative effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol in a 1-year, population-based, matched cohort study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): effect on COPD-related exacerbations, emergency department visits and hospitalizations, medication utilization, and treatment adherence. Clin Ther 2010; 32: 13208.
  • 19
    Kjeldsen SE, Stalhammar J, Hasvold P, Bodegard J, Olsson U, Russell D. Effects of losartan vs candesartan in reducing cardiovascular events in the primary treatment of hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 2010; 24: 26373.
  • 20
    Martinell M, Stalhammar J, Hallqvist J. Automated data extraction–a feasible way to construct patient registers of primary care utilization. Ups J Med Sci 2012; 117: 526.
  • 21
    Rosenbaum PR, Rubin DB. The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika 1983; 70: 4155.
  • 22
    Perkins SM, Tu W, Underhill MG, Zhou XH, Murray MD. The use of propensity scores in pharmacoepidemiologic research. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2000; 9: 93101.
  • 23
    Russell D, Stalhammar J, Bodegard J, Hasvold P, Thuresson M, Kjeldsen SE. Cardiovascular events in subgroups of patients during primary treatment of hypertension with candesartan or losartan. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2011; 13: 18997.
  • 24
    Palmqvist M, Arvidsson P, Beckman O, Peterson S, Lotvall J. Onset of bronchodilation of budesonide/formoterol vs. salmeterol/fluticasone in single inhalers. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2001; 14: 2934.
  • 25
    Lindberg A, Szalai Z, Pullerits T, Radeczky E. Fast onset of effect of budesonide/formoterol versus salmeterol/fluticasone and salbutamol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and reversible airway obstruction. Respirology 2007; 12: 7329.
  • 26
    Partridge MR, Schuermann W, Beckman O, Persson T, Polanowski T. Effect on lung function and morning activities of budesonide/formoterol versus salmeterol/fluticasone in patients with COPD. Ther Adv Respir Dis 2009; 3: 111.
  • 27
    Roberts M, Mapel D, Petersen H, Blanchette C, Ramachandran S. Comparative effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol and fluticasone/salmeterol for COPD management. J Med Econ 2011; 14: 76976.
  • 28
    Brattsand R, Miller-Larsson A. The role of intracellular esterification in budesonide once-daily dosing and airway selectivity. Clin Ther 2003; 25 (Suppl C): C2841.
  • 29
    Dalby C, Polanowski T, Larsson T, Borgstrom L, Edsbacker S, Harrison TW. The bioavailability and airway clearance of the steroid component of budesonide/formoterol and salmeterol/fluticasone after inhaled administration in patients with COPD and healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Respir Res 2009; 10: 104.
  • 30
    Thorsson L, Edsbacker S, Kallen A, Lofdahl CG. Pharmacokinetics and systemic activity of fluticasone via Diskus and pMDI, and of budesonide via Turbuhaler. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2001; 52: 52938.
  • 31
    Volovitz B. Inhaled budesonide in the management of acute worsenings and exacerbations of asthma: a review of the evidence. Respir Med 2007; 101: 68595.
  • 32
    Cabello H, Torres A, Celis R et al. Bacterial colonization of distal airways in healthy subjects and chronic lung disease: a bronchoscopic study. Eur Respir J 1997; 10: 113744.
  • 33
    Monso E, Rosell A, Bonet G et al. Risk factors for lower airway bacterial colonization in chronic bronchitis. Eur Respir J 1999; 13: 33842.
  • 34
    Ek A, Larsson K, Siljerud S, Palmberg L. Fluticasone and budesonide inhibit cytokine release in human lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. Allergy 1999; 54: 6919.