These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Association between mid- to late life physical fitness and dementia: evidence from the CAIDE study
Article first published online: 4 APR 2014
© 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine
Journal of Internal Medicine
Volume 276, Issue 3, pages 296–307, September 2014
How to Cite
University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä; University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Stockholm University, Stockholm, Karolinska Institute Alzheimer Disease Research Center, Stockholm; Institute for Gerontology School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki; Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu; Hospital District of North Karelia, Joensuu; Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland; Center for Vascular Prevention, Danube-University Krems, Krems, Austria; King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia). Association between mid- to late life physical fitness and dementia: evidence from the CAIDE study. J Intern Med 2014; 276: 296–307., , , , , , , , (
- Issue published online: 12 AUG 2014
- Article first published online: 4 APR 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 20 JAN 2014 08:58AM EST
- preventive medicine;
- public health;
- risk factors
This study investigated the association between perceived physical fitness at midlife, changes in perceived fitness during the three decades from mid- to late life and dementia risk.
Prospective cohort study.
Cardiovascular risk factors, ageing and incidence of dementia (CAIDE) study.
Subjects were selected from four independent, random samples of population-based cardiovascular surveys and were first examined in 1972, 1977, 1982 or 1987, when they were on average 50 years old. The CAIDE target population included 3559 individuals. A random sample of 2000 individuals still alive in 1997 was drawn for re-examinations (performed in 1998 and 2005–2008) that consisted of cognitive assessments, with 1511 subjects participating in at least one re-examination. Dementia diagnoses were also confirmed from national registers for the entire target population.
Main outcome measure
Poor physical fitness at midlife was associated with increased dementia risk in the entire target population [hazard ratio (HR), 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1–2.0]. In participants, odds ratio (OR) was 2.0 (95% CI, 0.9–4.0). This association was significant in apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOEε4) noncarriers (OR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.4–13.3), men (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1–3.0) and people with chronic conditions (HR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3–6.6). A decline in fitness after midlife was also associated with dementia (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.7–5.1), which was significant amongst both men and women and more pronounced in APOEε4 carriers (OR, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.1–9.1).
Perceived poor physical fitness reflects a combination of biological and lifestyle-related factors that can increase dementia risk. A simple question about perceived physical fitness may reveal at-risk individuals who could benefit from preventive interventions.