The aim of this 1-year study was to evaluate and compare crestal bone loss and clinical outcomes of immediate and delayed loaded implants supporting mandibular overdentures with Locator attachments. In a randomised controlled clinical trial, 36 completely edentulous patients (mean age 59·6 years) who desired to improve the stability of their mandibular dentures were randomly assigned into two groups. Each patient received two implants in the canine area of the mandible after a minimal flap reflection. Implants were loaded by mandibular overdentures either 3 months (delayed loading group, G1) or the same day (immediate loading group, G2) after implant placement. Locator attachments were used to retain all overdentures to the implants. Peri-implant vertical (VBL) and horizontal (HBLO) bone losses and clinical parameters [plaque scores (PI), gingival scores (GI), probing depths (PD) and implant stability (ISQ)] were assessed at time of overdenture insertion (T0), 6 months (T6) and 12 months (T12) after overdenture insertion. After 12 months of overdenture insertion, two implants (5·5%) failed in G2. Vertical bone loss was significantly higher in G2 compared with G1, while HBLO demonstrated insignificant differences between groups. All clinical parameters (PI, GI, PD and ISQ) did not differ significantly between groups. Vertical bone loss was significantly correlated with PD and HBLO. Immediately loaded two implants supporting a Locator-retained mandibular overdenture are associated with more vertical bone resorption when compared to delayed loaded implants after 1 year. Clinical outcomes do not differ significantly between loading protocols.