• halitosis;
  • gas chromatography;
  • social anxiety


Halitosis is described as offensive breath caused by various factors such as periodontal diseases, bacterial coating of tongue, systemic disorders and different types of foods. Pseudohalitosis is a situation that patients complain of oral malodor even though they do not have offensive odour. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationships between social anxiety estimations and both pseudohalitosis and genuine halitosis cases. Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and questionnaire regarding halitosis were applied to 100 participants. Halitosis was determined using organoleptic method, gas chromatography and portable sulphur monitor. anova test and 2-tailed Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient were used to determine the differences and relations between groups. With reference to LSAS, 62% of participants had anxiety. Among these patients, 98% had genuine halitosis (< 0·05). The mean measurements of VSC values were 248·65 ppm in halimeter, 298·02 ppm of H2S, 95·33 ppm of CH3SH and 47·00 ppm of (CH3)2S in gas chromatography. Halitosis was present in 90% of participants, and it was absent in 10% by organoleptic assessment. There was a significant correlation between organoleptic and halimeter measurements. Moreover, statistically significant relationship was detected between anxiety and halitosis. Genuine halitosis patients exhibit social anxiety, so it can be said that there is a causal relationship between halitosis and anxiety. Comparison of the results of objective measurements (sulphur monitor, gas chromatography, organoleptic method) was statistically significant; therefore, it can be said that these methods can be used in diagnosis of halitosis with high accuracy.