• Allemand, M., Gomez, V., & Jackson, J. J. (2010). Personality trait development in midlife: Exploring the impact of psychological turning points. European Journal of Ageing, 7, 147155.
  • Allemand, M., Zimprich, D., & Martin, M. (2008) Long-term correlated change in personality traits in old age. Psychology and Aging, 23, 545557.
  • Baltes, P. B., & Smith, J. (1997). A systemic-holistic view of psychological functioning in very old age: Introduction to a collection of articles from the Berlin Aging Study. Psychology and Aging, 12, 395409.
  • Berg, A. I., Hassing, L. B., Johansson, B., & McClearn, G. (2006). What matters for life satisfaction in the oldest-old? Aging and Mental Health, 10, 257264.
  • Berg, A. I., Hoffman, L., Hassing, L. B., & Johansson, B. (2009). What matters, and what matters most, for change in life satisfaction in the oldest-old? A study over 6 years among individuals 80+. Aging and Mental Health, 13, 191201.
  • Carstensen, L. L., Isaacowitz, D. M., & Charles, S. T. (1999). Taking time seriously: A theory of socioemotional selectivity. American Psychologist, 54, 165181.
  • Caspi, A., Roberts, B. W., & Shiner, R. L. (2005). Personality development: Stability and change. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 453484.
  • Comijs, H. C., Deeg, D. J. H., Dik, M. G., Twisk, J. W. R., & Jonker, C. (2002). Memory complaints; the association with psycho-affective and health problems and the role of personality characteristics: A 6-year follow-up study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72, 157165.
  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1994). Set like plaster? Evidence for the stability of adult personality. In T. F. Heatherton & J. L. Weinberger (Eds.), Can personality change? (pp. 2140). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. G. G. (1964). Manual of the Eysenck Personality Inventory. London: University of London Press.
  • Femia, E. E., Zarit, S. H., & Johansson, B. (1997). Predicting change in activities of daily living: A longitudinal study of the oldest old in Sweden. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 52, P294P302.
  • Folstein, M. F., Folsten, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). Mini-mental state: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for clinicians. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189198.
  • George, L. K. (2010). Still happy after all these years: Research frontiers on subjective well-being in later life. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 3, 331339.
  • Hawthorne, G. (2008) Perceived social isolation in a community sample: Its prevalence and correlates with aspects of peoples' lives. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43, 140150.
  • Helson, R., Kwan, V. S. Y., John, O., & Jones, C. (2002). The growing evidence for personality change in adulthood: Findings from research with personality inventories. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 287306.
  • Lawton, M. P. (1971). The functional assessment of elderly people. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 19, 465481.
  • Lucas, R. W., & Donnellan, M. B. (2011). Personality development across the life span: Longitudinal analyses with a national sample from Germany. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 847861.
  • McClearn, G. E., Johansson, B., Berg, S., Pedersen, N. L., Ahern, F., Petrill, S. A., & Plomin, S. (1997). Substantial genetic influence on cognitive abilities in twins 80 or more years old. Science, 276, 15601563.
  • Mottus, R., Johnson, W., & Deary, I. J. (2011). Personality traits in old age: Measurement and rank-order stability and some mean-level change. Psychology and Aging, 27, 243249.
  • Mroczek, D. K., & Spiro, A. (2003). Modeling intraindividual change in personality traits: Findings from the Normative Aging Study. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58, 153165.
  • Nilsson, S. E., Johansson, B., Berg, S., Karlsson, D., & McClearn, G. E. (2002). A comparison of diagnosis capture from medical records, self-reports, and drug registrations: A study in individuals 80 years and older. Aging & Clinical Experimental Research, 14, 178184.
  • Read, S., Vogler, G. P., Pedersen, N. L., & Johansson, B. (2006). Stability and change in genetic and environmental components of personality in old age. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 16371647.
  • Roberts, B. W., & Mroczek, D. (2008). Personality traits change in adulthood. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 3135.
    Direct Link:
  • Roberts, B. W., Walton, K. E., & Viechtbauer, W. (2006). Patterns of mean-level change in personality traits across the life course: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 125.
  • Simmons, S. F., Johansson, B., Zarit, S. H., Ljungquist, B., Plomin, R., & McClearn, G. E. (1997). Selection bias in samples of older twins? A comparison between octogenarian twins and singletons in Sweden. Journal of Aging and Health, 9, 553567.
  • Specht, J., Schmukle, S. C., & Egloff, B. (2011). Stability and change of personality across the life course: The impact of age and major life events on mean-level and rank-order stability of the Big Five. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 862882.
  • Srivastava, S., John, O. P., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2003). Development of personality in early and middle adulthood set like plaster or persistent change? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 10411053.