Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

Authors

  • Carrie A. Dooyema MSN, MPH, RN,

    Corresponding author
    1. Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, (igb7@cdc.gov), National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS K-26, Chamblee, GA 30341.
    • Address correspondence to: Carrie A. Dooyema, Epidemic Intelligence Service Officer, (igb7@cdc.gov), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, MS K-26, Chamblee, GA 30341.

    Search for more papers by this author
  • Daphne Copeland MD, MPH,

    1. Senior Health Scientist, (dcopeland@cdc.gov), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Julie R. Sinclair MA, DVM, MPH, DACVPM,

    1. Quarantine Veterinary Medical Officer, (bwg5@cdc.gov), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Quarantine Station – PHL, c/o CBP Reception, Terminal A West, Philadelphia, PA 19153.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jianrong Shi MD, MS,

    1. Statistician, (hku3@cdc.gov), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road, Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Melinda Wilkins DVM, MPH, PhD,

    1. Director, (wilkinsm@msu.edu.), Division of Communicable Disease, Michigan Department of Community Health, Bureau of Epidemiology, 201 Townsend, 5th Floor, PO Box 30195, Lansing, MI 48913.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Eden Wells MD, MPH,

    1. Medical Epidemiologist, (ewells@umich.edu), Division of Communicable Disease, Michigan Department of Community Health, Bureau of Epidemiology, 201 Townsend, 5th Floor, PO Box 30195, Lansing, MI 48913.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jim Collins MPH, RS

    1. Manager of Surveillance and Infectious Disease Epidemiology, (collinsj12@michigan.gov), Division of Communicable Disease, Michigan Department of Community Health, Bureau of Epidemiology, 201 Townsend, 5th Floor, PO Box 30195, Lansing, MI 48913.
    Search for more papers by this author

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND

In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures.

METHODS

We distributed an online survey to all Michigan K-12 school principals. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests summarize school policies, practices, adherence to government guidelines, and differences between schools that closed and those that remained open during the pandemic.

RESULTS

Of 4441 traditional K-12 Michigan schools, 937 (21%) principals responded to our survey representing approximately 374,000 students and 17,700 teachers. The majority (88%) of schools had influenza preparedness plans and followed government school influenza guidelines. Among respondents, 15% (137/937) of schools closed in fall 2009 with high absenteeism as the primary reason for closure. Schools that closed reported significant illness in their school, had <300 students, and had invested substantial resources preparing and responding to influenza.

CONCLUSIONS

Adherence to government guidelines for schools appears high in Michigan. Closures occurred in schools that reported significant illness and were likely motivated by excessive absenteeism. Understanding factors related to closures during pH1N1 may inform future pandemic preparedness efforts.

Ancillary