This research was supported by a grant from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. The authors thank Shelley Correll, Sheri Levy, and an anonymous reviewer for their suggestions on an earlier version of this manuscript, and H. Colleen Stuart for her assistance with Study 2.
Workplace Mistreatment of Middle Class Workers Based on Sex, Parenthood, and Caregiving
Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013
© 2013 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
Journal of Social Issues
Special Issue: The Flexibility Stigma
Volume 69, Issue 2, pages 341–366, June 2013
How to Cite
Berdahl, J. L. and Moon, S. H. (2013), Workplace Mistreatment of Middle Class Workers Based on Sex, Parenthood, and Caregiving. Journal of Social Issues, 69: 341–366. doi: 10.1111/josi.12018
- Issue published online: 12 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 12 JUN 2013
- Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada
Research suggests that women, but not men suffer negative professional consequences if they have children. These unequal consequences can be attributed to stereotypes about women's and men's roles as caregivers and breadwinners for their families, respectively. Two field studies of workplace mistreatment among middle-class employees examined whether fathers who violate these gender stereotypes by actively caregiving for their families suffer negative consequences at work. Study 1 (N = 232) examined not man enough harassment (being derogated as insufficiently masculine) and Study 2 (N = 451) examined general forms of mistreatment. Results showed that caregiving fathers experience more harassment and mistreatment than traditional fathers and than men without children. Women without children experience more harassment and mistreatment than mothers, and mothers who spend less time on caregiving experience more harassment and mistreatment than mothers who spend more time on caregiving. We discuss implications for theory and practice.