I am thankful to Andrew Lynch, Christine Mallinson, and Walt Wolfram for their assistance and reaction to earlier drafts of this paper. I am especially grateful to the editors and both anonymous reviewers for their feedback, which has greatly improved the quality of this work.
Shared spaces, shared structures: Latino social formation and African American English in the U.S. south†
Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013
© Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2013
Journal of Sociolinguistics
Volume 17, Issue 1, pages 66–92, February 2013
How to Cite
Carter, P. M. (2013), Shared spaces, shared structures: Latino social formation and African American English in the U.S. south. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 17: 66–92. doi: 10.1111/josl.12015
- Issue published online: 25 FEB 2013
- Article first published online: 25 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 5 OCT 2012
- 2001. I be the truth: Divergence, recreolization and the equative copula in Black Nation Language. Paper presented to New Ways of Analyzing Variation 30, 11–14 October, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina. .
- 2000. Language and negotiation of ethnic/racial identity among Dominican Americans. Language in Society 29: 555–582. .
- 1999. Indexing polyphonous identity in the speech of African American drag queens. In Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang, and Laurel Sutton (eds.) Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. New York: Oxford University Press. 313–331. .
- 1980. A re-examination of the Black English copula. In William Labov (ed.) Locating Language in Time and Space. New York: Academic Press. 83–106. .
- 2003. Women without Class: Girls, Race, and Identity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. .
- 1997. Defining the envelope of linguistic variation: The case of ‘don't count’ forms in the copula analysis of African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change 9: 57–79. .
- 2008. The Latinamericanization of racial stratification in the U.S. In Ronald E. Hall (ed.) Racism in the 21st Century. New York: Springer. 151–170. and .
- 1999a. ‘Why be normal?’ Language and identity practices in a community of nerd girls. Language in Society 28: 203–223. .
- 1999b. You da Man: Narrating the racial other in the production of white masculinity. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3: 443–460. .
- 1998. Performing gender identity: Young men's talk and the construction of heterosexual masculinity. In Jennifer Coates (ed.) Language and Gender: A Reader. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. 270–284. .
- 2005. Keepin’ It Real: School Success beyond Black and White. Oxford, U.K.: Oxford University Press. .
- 2003. Sociolinguistic Theory (2nd edition). Malden, Massachusetts/Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell. .
- 2001. The construction of White, Black, and Korean American identities through African American Vernacular English. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 11: 52–64. .
- 2001. Dialect stylization in radio talk. Language in Society 30: 345–375. .
- 2007. Style: Language Variation and Identity. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. .
- 1999. Yorkville crossing: A case study of hip-hop and the language of a white middle-class teenager in New York City. Journal of Sociolinguistics 3: 428–442. .
- 2010. Identities in transition: The use of AAVE grammatical features by Hispanic adolescents in two North Carolina communities. American Speech 85: 185–204. .
- 2000. Linguistic Variation as Social Practice. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell. .
- 1972. Tense Marking in Black English: A Linguistic and Social Analysis. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics. .
- 2003. Chicano English in Context. Basingstoke, U.K.: Palgrave. .
- 2006. Language and Ethnicity. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge. .
- 2008. Latino racial choices: The effects of skin colour and discrimination on Latinos’ and Latinas’ racial self-identifications. Ethnic and Racial Studies 31: 899–934. and .
- 2002. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. .
- 2001. Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic. Oxford, U.K.: Signal Books. .
- 2005. Othering in gossip: ‘You go out you have a laugh and you can pull yeah but like …’ Language in Society 34: 667–694. and .
- 2007. Enhancing sociolinguistic data collections: The North Carolina Sociolinguistic archive and analysis project. Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 13: 15–26. .
- 2009. Localized patterns for global variants: The case of quotative systems of African American and Latino speakers. American Speech 84: 259–297. and .
- 1969. Contraction, deletion and inherent variability of the English copula. Language 45: 715–762. .
- 1968. A Study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City. United States Office of Education Final Report, Research Project 3288. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education. , , and .
- 1988. White privilege and male privilege: A personal account of coming to see correspondences through work in Women's Studies. Working paper 189. Wellesley, Massachusetts: Center for Research on Women, Wellesley College. .
- 2008. Homegirls: Language and Cultural Practice among Latina Youth Gangs. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell. .
- 2010. Focusing, implicational scaling, and the dialect status of New York Latino English. Journal of Sociolinguistics 14: 207–239. .
- 1992. Indexing gender. In Alessandro Duranti and Charles Goodwin (eds.) Rethinking Context: Language as an Interactive Phenomenon. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. .
- 1978. Dialect acquisition among Puerto Rican bilinguals. Language in Society 7: 89–103. .
- 1995. Crossing: Language and Ethnicity among Adolescents. London: Longman. .
- 1999. African American English: Features, Evolution and Educational Implications. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell. .
- 2010. Looking like a language, sounding like a race: Making Latina/o panethnicity and managing American anxieties. Unpublished PhD dissertation. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago. .
- 1994. Convergent explanation and alternative regularization patterns: Were/weren't leveling in a vernacular English variety. Language Variation and Change 6: 273–302. and .
- 2004. Peer group identification and variation in New York Latino English laterals. English World Wide 25: 199–216. and .
- 1999. Analogical leveling in Samaná English: The case of was and were. Journal of English Linguistics 27: 8–16. and .
- 1997. Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations about Race. New York: Basic Books. .
- 1993. Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. .
- 2003. The social significance of language loyalty among Black and White Dominicans in New York. The Bilingual Review 27: 3–11. .
- 1997. Racism in a Racial Democracy: The Maintenance of White Supremacy in Brazil. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers. .
- 1996. Exposing Prejudice: Puerto Rican Experiences of Language, Race, and Class. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. .
- 1997. Race and Ethnicity in Latin America. New York: Pluto. .
- 1994. Variability in negation in African American Vernacular English. Language Variation and Change 6: 359–397. .
- 2006. Features of AAVE as features of PRE: A study of adolescents in Philadelphia. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 12: 231–244. and .
- 1969. A Linguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics. .
- 1974. Sociolinguistic Aspects of Assimilation: Puerto Rican English in New York City. Arlington, Virginia: Center for Applied Linguistics. .
- 2011. Southern-bred Hispanic English: An emerging socioethnic variety. In Jim Michnowicz and Robin Dodsworth (eds.) Selected Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on Spanish Sociolinguistics. Somerville, Massachusetts: Cascadilla. 1–13. , and .
- 1999. Ethnolinguistic marking of past be in Lumbee Vernacular English. Journal of English Linguistics 27: 94–114. and .
- 2002. The Development of African American English. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell. and .
- 1996. The ‘Chiquitafication’ of U.S. Latinos and their languages, or: Why we need an anthropolitical linguistics. In Risako Ide, Rebecca Parker and Yukako Sunaoshi (eds.) SALSA III: Proceedings of the Third Annual Symposium about Language and Society – Austin (Texas Linguistics Forum 36). Austin, Texas: University of Texas Department of Linguistics. 1–18. .
- 1997. Growing Up Bilingual. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell. .