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Multivariate Approaches for Optimization of the Acceptance: Optimization of a Brazilian Cerrado Fruit Jam Using Mixture Design and Parallel Factor Analysis


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Optimization is an important step in the development of a product. Optimization methods are used within the sensory science as a way to obtain results in a specific set of conditions useful to understand cause-and-effect questions for ingredients or to provide potential formulations and direction for product development. In this work, response surface methodology and parallel factor analysis-based method were used for optimization of acceptance parameters in mixed fruit jam using a mixture design. Fruit (murici, marolo, jenipapo, sweet passion fruit and soursop) proportions in a formulation of Cerrado Brazilian fruit jam were optimized for consumer acceptance parameters. An optimized jam was suggested with 40% of marolo, 35% of soursop, 25% of sweet passion fruit, and 0% of murici and jenipapo.

Practical Applications

Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used in order to select relevant variables for a response surface methodology optimization of acceptance parameters in a product development. PARAFAC was useful to determine the importance (negative or positive influence) of variables in a mixture design. The method can be an interesting alternative to select relevant variables in optimization studies with various factors to be evaluated.