Get access

Posterior urethral valves: Determinants of outcome in a developing country

Authors

  • Henrietta U Okafor,

    1. Nephrology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sebastian O Ekenze,

    Corresponding author
    1. Sub-Department of Paediatric Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
    • Nephrology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Samuel N Uwaezuoke

    1. Nephrology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria
    Search for more papers by this author

  • Conflict of interest: None declared.

Correspondence: Dr Sebastian O Ekenze, Sub-Department of Paediatric Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Fax: +042-253397; email: sebekenze@gmail.com

Abstract

Aim

This study aims to evaluate posterior urethral valve (PUV) in a developing country with focus on the profile of the disease, determinants of outcome and the challenges of management.

Methods

Analysis of data collected prospectively from 31 patients managed for PUV at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu from January 2008 to December 2009.

Results

The median age at presentation was 2.5 years (range 2 weeks–15 years). Only two (6.5%) had pre-natal diagnosis. Twenty-six (83.9%) had one or more complications of the disease at presentation. The mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 39.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (range 4.4–116.0). There was hydronephrosis involving 50 renal units, and vesicoureteral reflux involving 22 renal units. Eight cases required upper tract diversion and four required dialysis prior to definitive catheter ablation. After average follow-up of 12.6 months (range 3–22 months), 18 (58.1%) cases had clinical and radiological improvement, 9 (29%) had persisting poor renal function and 4 (12.9%) died from acute renal failure and end-stage renal disease. Associated pulmonary hypoplasia in neonates, presentation at adolescent age, bilateral vesicoureteral reflux and estimated glomerular filtration rate <10.0 at presentation adversely affected outcome. Delayed diagnosis, dearth of facilities and resource deficiency remain a challenge.

Conclusion

Significant cases of PUV present late with complications in our setting and have high morbidity and mortality. The poor outcome may be related to delayed diagnosis, poor renal function at presentation and poor renal support. Improving time to diagnosis and renal support may lead to better outcome.

Ancillary