Tuberculosis in children


  • Ben J Marais

    Corresponding author
    1. Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Children's Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • Correspondence: Associate Professor Ben J Marais, Clinical School, Children's Hospital at Westmead, Locked Bag 4001, Sydney, NSW 2145, Australia. Fax: +61 2 9845; email:

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  • Conflict of interest: None declared.


Tuberculosis (TB) is a major, but often unrecognised, cause of disease and death in young children from countries with high TB incidence rates among adults. It is also relevant to paediatricians in low-incidence countries, such as Australia, because of increased international travel, immigration and refugee resettlement. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the global TB disease burden, the natural history of disease in children, and offers guidance on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB in children.