• 1
    Fraser J, de Boer GM. New Zealand Post-Neonatal SIDS 1983-85 (Cot Deaths). National Health Statistics Centre, 1987. Available from: [accessed October 2013].
  • 2
    Mitchell EA, Scragg R, Stewart AW et al. Cot death: the New Zealand study. Contemp. Health Issues 1989; 1: 6772.
  • 3
    National Health Statistics Centre. Fetal and Infant Deaths, Annual. Department of Health, New Zealand; 1986.
  • 4
    Mitchell EA, Hassall IB, Becroft DMO. Postneonatal mortality in Auckland: two years experience. N. Z. Med. J. 1987; 100: 269272.
  • 5
    Mitchell EA, Scragg R, Stewart AW et al. Results from the first year of the New Zealand cot death study. N. Z. Med. J. 1991; 104: 7176.
  • 6
    Mitchell EA, Taylor BJ, Ford RPK et al. Four modifiable and other major risk factors for cot death: the New Zealand study. J. Paediatr. Child Health 1992; 28 (Suppl. 1): S38.
  • 7
    Beal S. Sleeping position and SIDS. Lancet 1988; 2: 512.
  • 8
    Mitchell EA. Cot death: should the prone sleeping position be discouraged? J. Paediatr. Child Health 1991; 27: 319321.
  • 9
    Beal SM, Finch CF. An overview of retrospective case-control studies investigating the relationship between prone sleeping position and SIDS. J. Paediatr. Child Health 1991; 27: 334339.
  • 10
    Carpenter RG. Sudden and unexpected deaths in infancy (cot death). In: Camps FE, Carpenter RG, eds. Sudden and Unexpected Death in Infancy (Cot Death). Bristol: John Wright, 1972; 715.
  • 11
    Beal SM, Blundell H. Sudden infant death syndrome related to position in the cot. Med. J. Aust. 1978; 2: 217218.
  • 12
    Fleming PJ, Gilbert R, Azaz Y et al. Interaction between bedding and sleeping position in the sudden infant death syndrome: a population based case-control study. BMJ 1990; 301: 8589.
  • 13
    Dwyer T, Ponsonby AL, Newman NM, Gibbons LE. Prospective cohort study of prone sleeping position and sudden infant death syndrome. Lancet 1991; 337: 12441247.
  • 14
    Mitchell EA, Aley P, Eastwood J. The national cot death prevention programme in New Zealand. Aust. J. Public Health 1992; 16: 158161.
  • 15
    Taylor BJ, Mitchell EA, Ford RPK. Preventing Cot Death in New Zealand. Therapeutic Notes No 210. Department of Health, 1991.
  • 16
    Mitchell EA, Tonkin S. Publicity and infants' sleeping position. BMJ 1993; 306: 858.
  • 17
    Scragg LK, Mitchell EA, Tonkin SL, Hassall IB. Evaluation of the cot death prevention programme in South Auckland. N. Z. Med. J. 1993; 106: 810.
  • 18
    Mitchell EA, Hutchison L, Stewart AW. The continuing decline in SIDS mortality. Arch. Dis. Child. 2007; 92: 225226.
  • 19
    Mitchell EA, Blair PS. 3,000 lives saved – but can do better. N. Z. Med. J. 2012; 125: 5057.
  • 20
    Mitchell EA, Brunt JM, Everard C. Reduction in mortality from sudden infant death syndrome in New Zealand: 1986-92. Arch. Dis. Child. 1994; 70: 291294.
  • 21
    Mitchell EA, Clements M, Williams SM et al. Seasonal differences in risk factors for the sudden infant death syndrome. Acta Paediatr. 1999; 88: 253258.
  • 22
    Taylor BJ, Mitchell EA, Ford RPK. Sleep position and sudden infant death syndrome: an explanation for the north-south gradient of mortality. Second SIDS International Conference, 1992, Sydney, NSW; Perinatolgy Press, USA. 161–167, 1993.
  • 23
    Ponsonby AL, Dwyer T, Gibbons LE, Cochrane JA, Wang YG. Factors potentiating the risk of sudden infant death syndrome associated with the prone position. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993; 329: 377382.
  • 24
    Williams SM, Taylor BJ, Mitchell EA. Sudden infant death syndrome: insulation from bedding and clothing and its effect modifiers. Int. J. Epidemiol. 1996; 25: 366375.
  • 25
    Ford RPK, Mitchell EA, Stewart AW, Scragg R, Taylor BJ. SIDS, illness, and acute medical care. Arch. Dis. Child. 1997; 77: 5455.
  • 26
    Williams SM, Mitchell EA, Taylor BJ. Are risk factors for SIDS different at night? Arch. Dis. Child. 2002; 87: 274278.
  • 27
    Mitchell EA, Bajanowski T, Brinkmann B, Jorch G, Stewart AW, Vennemann MMT. Prone sleeping position increases the risk of SIDS in the day more than at night. Acta Paediatr. 2008; 97: 584589.
  • 28
    Kohlendorfer U, Kiechl S, Sperl W. Living at high altitude and risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Arch. Dis. Child. 1998; 79: 506509.
  • 29
    Mitchell EA. What is the mechanism of SIDS? Clues from epidemiology. Dev. Psychobiol. 2009; 51: 215222.
  • 30
    Mosko S, McKenna J, Dickel M, Hunt L. Parent-infant cosleeping: the appropriate context for the study of infant sleep and implications for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) research. J. Behav. Med. 1993; 16: 589610.
  • 31
    Ball HL, Moya E, Fairley L, Westman J, Oddie S, Wright J. Bed- and sofa-sharing practices in a UK biethnic population. Pediatrics 2012; 129: e673681.
  • 32
    Hutchison BL, Stewart AW, Mitchell EA. SIDS protective infant care practices among Auckland mothers. N. Z. Med. J. 2006; 119: 110. Available from:
  • 33
    Blair PS, Sidebotham P, Evason-Coombe C, Edmonds M, Heckstall-Smith EM, Fleming P. Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ 2009; 339: b3666.
  • 34
    Escott A, Elder DE, Zuccollo JM. Sudden unexpected infant death and bedsharing: referrals to the Wellington Coroner 1997–2006. N. Z. Med. J. 2009; 122: 5968.
  • 35
    Hutchison BL, Rea C, Stewart AW, Koelmeyer TD, Tipene-Leach DC, Mitchell EA. Sudden unexpected infant death in Auckland: a retrospective case review. Acta Paediatr. 2011; 100: 11081112.
  • 36
    Vennemann MM, Hense HW, Bajanowski T et al. Bed sharing and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome: can we resolve the debate? J. Pediatr 2012; 160: 4448, e2.
  • 37
    Scragg R, Mitchell EA, Taylor BJ et al. Bedsharing, smoking and alcohol in the sudden infant death syndrome: results from the New Zealand cot death study. BMJ 1993; 307: 13121318.
  • 38
    Carpenter RG, Irgens LM, Blair PS et al. Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. Lancet 2004; 363: 185191.
  • 39
    Blair PS, Fleming PJ, Smith IJ et al. Babies sleeping with parents: case-control study of factors influencing the risk of the sudden infant death syndrome. BMJ 1999; 319: 14571461.
  • 40
    Carpenter R, McGarvey C, Mitchell EA et al. Bed sharing when parents do not smoke: is there a risk of SIDS? An individual level analysis of five major cases-control studies. BMJ Open 2013; 3: e002299.
  • 41
    Mitchell EA. Sudden infant death and co-sleeping: stronger warning needed. N. Z. Med. J. 2009; 122: 69.
  • 42
    Abel S, Tipene-Leach D. SUDI prevention: a review of Maori safe sleep innovations for infants. N. Z. Med. J. 2013; 126: 8694.
  • 43
    Change for our Children. About the Pepi-Pod® Sleep Space Programme, 2013. Available from: [accessed October 2013].