Conflict of interest: The authors have none to declare.
Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: A longitudinal study
Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014
© 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians)
Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Volume 50, Issue 11, pages 908–915, November 2014
How to Cite
Wang, L., Mamudu, H. M., Alamian, A., Anderson, J. L. and Brooks, B. (2014), Independent and joint effects of prenatal maternal smoking and maternal exposure to second-hand smoke on the development of adolescent obesity: A longitudinal study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50: 908–915. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12667
- Issue published online: 6 NOV 2014
- Article first published online: 12 JUN 2014
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 MAY 2014
- National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)
- Research Development Committee (RDC) of ETSU. Grant Number: 12-019sm
- adolescent obesity;
- longitudinal study;
- maternal smoking
To examine associations of prenatal maternal smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure with the development of adolescent obesity.
Longitudinal data (1991–2007) from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development involving mothers that smoked and or exposed to SHS during the year before birth were analysed. Adolescent obesity in ages 12.0–15.9 years was defined as a BMI ≥ 95th percentile. Generalised estimating equations (GEE) were used for the analyses.
Obesity was more prevalent among adolescents whose mothers smoked or had SHS exposure than those that did not smoke or exposed to SHS. After adjusting for maternal and child factors, GEE models showed that odds of adolescent obesity increased with prenatal maternal smoking (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.03–2.39) and SHS exposure (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.04–2.27). The odds for obesity increased more than two times among adolescents exposed to both maternal smoking and SHS (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.56) compared with those without exposure. Additionally, not breastfeeding, maternal obesity, and longer screen viewing hours per day were associated with increased odds of obesity.
There is possibly a long-term joint effect of prenatal maternal smoke (smoking and SHS) exposure on obesity among adolescent offspring, and the effect is independent of birthweight. These findings suggest that adolescent obesity could possibly be curtailed with the development and promotion of smoking cessation programmes for families during the year before birth.