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Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 2

April 2012

Volume 49, Issue 2

Pages 307–533

  1. Practitioner’s Perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      How can ecologists help practitioners minimize non-target effects in weed biocontrol? (pages 307–310)

      Simon V. Fowler, Quentin Paynter, Sarah Dodd and Ronny Groenteman

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02106.x

  2. Management of invasives

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      Beyond fecundity control: which weeds are most containable? (pages 311–321)

      F. Dane Panetta and Oscar J. Cacho

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02105.x

      Feasibility of containment should be viewed in terms of the effort required to reduce weed spread rate, as well as the effectiveness of relevant management actions. Where dispersal vectors are not readily manageable and the probability of detection via structured and/or unstructured surveillance is low, a much greater reliance upon fecundity control will be needed to contain a weed. A combination of empirical and theoretical approaches should be used to develop and refine estimates of containment feasibility. Such estimates will aid decision-making with regard to whether to attempt to reduce weed spread and assist in prioritisation of different weeds for containment.

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      Controlling a plant invader by targeted disruption of its life cycle (pages 322–330)

      Joseph T. Dauer, Peter B. McEvoy and John Van Sickle

      Version of Record online: 6 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02117.x

      Maximizing plant competition provides the fastest way to control ragwort. If this option is unavailable, for example, grazed or disturbed land, the ragwort flea beetle provides excellent management to lower ragwort densities without the potential nontarget effects of the cinnabar moth. Factorial experiments and matrix models help to evaluate interacting factors that influence invasive species’ vulnerabilities, inform how to intervene in a weed life cycle to reduce weed abundance and confirm recommendations that are robust to community variation.

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      Combining efficient methods to detect spread of woody invaders in urban–rural matrix landscapes: an exploration using two species of Oleaceae (pages 331–338)

      Clare E. Aslan, Marcel Rejmánek and Robert Klinger

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02097.x

      Low-cost and rapid methods are essential for successful long-term monitoring of spread from populations of introduced, woody plant species. We employed high-efficiency methods of spread detection for two species of Oleaceae with invasive potential and existing populations in the study region. We detected no barriers to spread by L. lucidum in areas with elevated soil moisture and consider the species a likely riparian invader. By comparison, O. europaea shows little tendency to spread. We suggest that managers combine low-input methods and direct surveys towards habitats of conservation concern and routes of likely seed dispersal.

  3. Biodiversity assessment

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      Successional trends in Floristic Quality (pages 339–348)

      Greg Spyreas, Scott J. Meiners, Jeffrey W. Matthews and Brenda Molano-Flores

      Version of Record online: 24 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02100.x

      Understanding the temporal behaviour(s) of Floristic Quality is necessary for setting realistic restoration goals, evaluating habitat recovery and adapting management to achieve high conservation value natural areas. By illustrating the temporal consistency of Floristic Quality metrics during succession, this article demonstrates the robustness of FQA for such uses. The FQA value trajectory described here also establishes a background trend model for expected values in recovering habitats, which will allow for the assessment of an individual habitat’s progression relative to the background trend. Such comparisons en masse will highlight the constraints of greatest importance to community-level Floristic Quality restoration. For example, FQA values in this study were ultimately limited by Conservative understorey plant re-establishment from adjacent old-growth forest. As this is not unlike species recovery patterns observed in other habitats, it suggests that restoration practitioners would do well to focus on Conservative species.

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      Birds as biodiversity surrogates: will supplementing birds with other taxa improve effectiveness? (pages 349–356)

      Frank Wugt Larsen, Jesper Bladt, Andrew Balmford and Carsten Rahbek

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02094.x

      Good surrogates of biodiversity are necessary to help identify conservation areas that will be effective in preventing species extinctions. Birds perform fairly well as surrogates in cases where birds are relatively speciose, but overall effectiveness will be improved by adding additional data from other taxa, in particular from range-restricted species. Conservation solutions with focus on birds as biodiversity surrogate could therefore benefit from also incorporating species data from other taxa.

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      Taxonomic relatedness does not matter for species surrogacy in the assessment of community responses to environmental drivers (pages 357–366)

      Stanislao Bevilacqua, Antonio Terlizzi, Joachim Claudet, Simonetta Fraschetti and Ferdinando Boero

      Version of Record online: 16 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02096.x

      Surrogates of species-level information can be based on the ‘highest practicable aggregation’ of species, irrespective of their taxonomic relatedness. Our findings cast doubt on static taxonomical groupings, legitimizing the use of alternative ways to aggregate species to maximize the use of species surrogacy.

  4. Impacts of human activity

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      Evaluating the effectiveness of human–orangutan conflict mitigation strategies in Sumatra (pages 367–375)

      Gail Campbell-Smith, Rabin Sembiring and Matthew Linkie

      Version of Record online: 6 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02109.x

      Whilst human–orangutan conflicts caused substantial losses to local livelihoods, the identification of an effective mitigation method (nets) neither guaranteed its continued use nor uptake. Developing easy to install nets for valuable tree crops is therefore recommended. Nevertheless, the project intervention efforts did create benign farmer attitudes towards orangutan management, an essential prerequisite for managing large-bodied mammals in conflict with people.

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      Alleviating human–wildlife conflicts: identifying the causes and mapping the risk of illegal poisoning of wild fauna (pages 376–385)

      Patricia Mateo-Tomás, Pedro P. Olea, Inés S. Sánchez-Barbudo and Rafael Mateo

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02119.x

      We demonstrate a new use for presence-only models, illustrated using MaxEnt, to assist conservation managers dealing with illegal activities. This approach allows the main causes of an illegal practice to be identified and generates spatially explicit risk maps. Managers can take advantage of this modelling approach to allocate the scarce resources available in conservation to key sectors and locations. In our study system, actions against illegal poisoning should aim to resolve the potential conflict existing between cattle-farming and wolves, especially in protected areas.

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      Greater impacts of wind farms on bird populations during construction than subsequent operation: results of a multi-site and multi-species analysis (pages 386–394)

      James W. Pearce-Higgins, Leigh Stephen, Andy Douse and Rowena H. W. Langston

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02110.x

      This study confirms that regulatory authorities and developers should particularly consider the likely impacts of wind farms on large waders. Greater weight should be given to the effects of construction on wildlife in impact assessments than at present. Mitigation measures during construction, including restricting construction activity to non-breeding periods, should be considered and tested as a means to reduce these negative effects.

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      Impacts of highway crossings on density of brook charr in streams (pages 395–403)

      Marc Pépino, Marco A. Rodríguez and Pierre Magnan

      Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02108.x

      Habitat fragmentation resulting from restriction of passage at highway crossings had markedly greater effects on local population density than short-term impacts arising from construction activities. The modelling approaches used in this study can be useful management tools for the conservation of mobile fish species in fragmented riverine landscapes.

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      Modelling carcass disposal practices: implications for the management of an ecological service provided by vultures (pages 404–411)

      Hélène Dupont, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Sophie Bobbé and François Sarrazin

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02111.x

      In cases where there is a mismatch between the demand and the offer, negative feedback can occur for both humans and vultures. Preserving vulture populations and enhancing benefits from the sustainable service, they provide might henceforth be explicitly accounted for in legislation and carcass management guidance, in accordance with vulture food requirements. The agent-based modelling approach described here offers a tool that can guide management strategies and policies and support coordination among stakeholders.

  5. Management and restoration

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      Managing fire mosaics for small mammal conservation: a landscape perspective (pages 412–421)

      Luke T. Kelly, Dale G. Nimmo, Lisa M. Spence-Bailey, Rick S. Taylor, Simon J. Watson, Michael F. Clarke and Andrew F. Bennett

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02124.x

      In fire-prone environments, habitat availability can change markedly over short time-scales. Sufficient habitat at a suitable seral stage within the landscape is a key requirement for species conservation. In mallee ecosystems, the retention of older vegetation is recommended to create more desirable fire mosaics for native small mammals. In addition to such spatial properties of mosaics that are amenable to manipulation, an understanding of how ecological processes affect the biota (such as variation in rainfall-driven productivity) is also essential for informed conservation management.

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      The pyrodiversity–biodiversity hypothesis: a test with savanna termite assemblages (pages 422–430)

      Andrew B. Davies, Paul Eggleton, Berndt J. van Rensburg and Catherine L. Parr

      Version of Record online: 24 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02107.x

      Our findings, along with those for other insect taxa, indicate limited support for the pyrodiversity–biodiversity hypothesis; this suggests that, at least for invertebrates, management regimes can be flexible, although more caution is advisable in wetter savannas.

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      Agglomerating seeds to enhance native seedling emergence and growth (pages 431–438)

      Matthew D. Madsen, Kirk W. Davies, C. Jason Williams and Tony J. Svejcar

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02118.x

      This short-duration ‘proof-of-concept’ study indicates that both the seed coating materials used to form the agglomerates and the act of agglomerating the seeds together improve P. spicata emergence and plant growth. These results also demonstrate that in the early seedling stage, facilitation outweighs competition in agglomeration plantings. Additional research is needed to verify these results in the field.

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      Turf transplants for restoration of alpine vegetation: does size matter? (pages 439–446)

      Asa L. Aradottir

      Version of Record online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02123.x

      Optimum turf size for the restoration of native species varied among functional groups of plants and decreased as follows: evergreen dwarf-shrubs > deciduous dwarf-shrubs > sedges > grasses > mosses. Turfs that are at least 20–30 cm in diameter may be needed for the transplantation of dwarf-shrubs, while turfs as small as 5 cm in diameter can be used to establish many grass species. Even smaller units can be used to facilitate moss colonization. Turfs that are salvaged from development projects can be a valuable source of native species for use in restoration schemes. Turf size for transplanting should be selected with regard to donor vegetation, growth form and abundance of the target species.

  6. Disease and pest management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      Simulating devil facial tumour disease outbreaks across empirically derived contact networks (pages 447–456)

      Rodrigo Hamede, Jim Bashford, Menna Jones and Hamish McCallum

      Version of Record online: 23 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02103.x

      In the particular case of DFTD, incorporating observed host network structure has only a modest effect on the outcome of the host pathogen interaction. In general, however, non-random network structure may have major implications for the management of wildlife diseases. Our results suggest that this is particularly likely for pathogens in which the probability of transmission given a contact is intermediate. Our approach provides a template for using empirically obtained data on contact networks to develop models to explore the extent to which network structure influences R0, the probability of extinction and the mean time until extinction.

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      Predicting the speed of tick invasion: an empirical model of range expansion for the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada (pages 457–464)

      Patrick A. Leighton, Jules K. Koffi, Yann Pelcat, L. Robbin Lindsay and Nicholas H. Ogden

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02112.x

      By tracking I. scapularis invasion in Canada over the past two decades, we show that I. scapularis is rapidly expanding its range and is likely to colonize the most densely populated areas of southern Canada in the coming decade. These projections suggest that prompt action is necessary to prepare the Canadian public for a likely epidemic of Lyme disease, with emphasis on focusing surveillance activities to confirm the locations of emerging Lyme disease risk.

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      A minor pest reduces yield losses by a major pest: plant-mediated herbivore interactions in Indonesian cacao (pages 465–473)

      Arno Wielgoss, Yann Clough, Brigitte Fiala, Alfianus Rumede and Teja Tscharntke

      Version of Record online: 9 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02122.x

      Plant-mediated indirect interactions between minor and major pest insects can be important drivers of yield loss at agriculturally relevant spatial and temporal scales. In cacao, the mirid bug H. sulawesi, a minor pest, generates conspicuous damage which often triggers pest control with insecticides. This practice may be counterproductive, because decreasing H. sulawesi damage benefits the main pest, the cacao pod borer C. cramerella resulting in a marketable yield optimum at intermediate densities of the minor pest. Pest control recommendations should take into account the relative effect of control measures on interacting herbivores to avoid replacing one pest problem with another, potentially more serious one, during the course of a fruiting season.

  7. Spatial dynamics

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      First evidence that marine protected areas can work for marine mammals (pages 474–480)

      Andrew M. Gormley, Elisabeth Slooten, Steve Dawson, Richard J. Barker, Will Rayment, Sam du Fresne and Stefan Bräger

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02121.x

      Our study demonstrates improvement in a demographic parameter of an endangered marine mammal species following conservation action. Our results provide evidence that area-based protection measures can be effective for marine mammals. We note that estimating demographic parameters in marine mammals requires many years of data to achieve sufficient precision to detect biologically meaningful change. MPAs should be established with a commitment to long-term monitoring.

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      Investigating fine-scale spatio-temporal predator–prey patterns in dynamic marine ecosystems: a functional data analysis approach (pages 481–492)

      Clare B. Embling, Janine Illian, Eric Armstrong, Jeroen van der Kooij, Jonathan Sharples, Kees C. J. Camphuysen and Beth E. Scott

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02114.x

      Functional Data Analysis provides a useful tool for examining spatio-temporal patterns in natural ecosystems. In combination with fine-scale repeated survey design, we identified the importance of tide in driving prey behaviour and hence predator foraging behaviour. This has implications both for critical marine habitat identification for Marine Protected Area selection and for fisheries stock assessments. We therefore recommend that tidal aspects should be taken into account when designing marine surveys in temperate coastal ecosystems both to ensure the best identification of critical marine habitat and to improve the accuracy of fish stock assessments.

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      Metapopulation dynamics and future persistence of epiphytic cyanolichens in a European boreal forest ecosystem (pages 493–502)

      Katja Fedrowitz, Mikko Kuusinen and Tord Snäll

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02113.x

      During the coming decades, infrequent, sexually dispersed, epiphytic lichens are likely to be lost from small woodland habitat set asides in intensively managed landscapes. Local extinction will be a consequence of low colonization rates and tree fall. Low colonization rates can be prevented by retaining large trees on which lichen species colonization rates are the highest and by assuring a high density of occupied trees. The negative effect of tree fall should be compensated for by assuring continuous availability of old trees. This can be achieved by decreasing the populations of large browsers, or by retaining trees with high conservation value during management operations.

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      Edge effects and their influence on habitat suitability calculations: a continuous approach applied to birds of the Atlantic forest (pages 503–512)

      Gustavo Zurita, Guy Pe’er, M. Isabel Bellocq and Miriam M. Hansbauer

      Version of Record online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02104.x

      Our results demonstrate the impact of edge effects on bird species and communities in fragmented landscapes. Furthermore, the differential penetration capacity of the native forest birds into anthropogenic habitats shows the importance of using a continuous approach to calculate habitat suitability; classic calculation (without considering the distance to the preferred habitat) is likely to bias the calculated suitability and permeability of the hostile matrix and affect our estimations of connectivity.

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      Landscape simplification and altitude affect biodiversity, herbivory and Andean potato yield (pages 513–522)

      Katja Poveda, Eliana Martínez, Monica F. Kersch-Becker, Maria A. Bonilla and Teja Tscharntke

      Version of Record online: 12 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02120.x

      Tropical landscapes at lower altitude or with smaller areas of cropped land suffered less from the presence of the potato moth, which had a negative effect on yield. Our results suggest that conservation of natural habitats like the endangered Andean ecosystems would benefit farmers through ecosystem services such as reduced pest damage, higher yield and increased functional biodiversity.

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      Moving in three dimensions: effects of structural complexity on occurrence and activity of insectivorous bats in managed forest stands (pages 523–531)

      Kirsten Jung, Sonja Kaiser, Stefan Böhm, Jens Nieschulze and Elisabeth K. V. Kalko

      Version of Record online: 8 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02116.x

      High-resolution LiDAR data are an important tool to assess structural habitat suitability for bat species. Our data revealed that bat occurrence and activity increases with structural heterogeneity in managed forest stands. Given, that bats provide an essential ecosystem service through top-down control of herbivorous insects, increasing stand structural heterogeneity through management practices (e.g. selective harvesting) is a very effective strategy to assure vital ecosystem functioning in production forest systems.

  8. Editors’ Announcement

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Management of invasives
    4. Biodiversity assessment
    5. Impacts of human activity
    6. Management and restoration
    7. Disease and pest management
    8. Spatial dynamics
    9. Editors’ Announcement
    1. You have free access to this content
      Editors’ Announcement (pages 532–533)

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02125.x

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