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Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 4

August 2012

Volume 49, Issue 4

Pages 753–967

  1. Practitioner’s Perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Assessing anthropogenic impacts
    4. Management under climate change
    5. Modelling for management
    6. Agroecosystems
    7. Conservation, restoration and regeneration
    8. Monitoring
    1. You have free access to this content
      Developing collaborative research to improve effectiveness in biodiversity conservation practice (pages 753–757)

      Arnaud Caudron, Laure Vigier and Alexis Champigneulle

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02115.x

  2. Assessing anthropogenic impacts

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Assessing anthropogenic impacts
    4. Management under climate change
    5. Modelling for management
    6. Agroecosystems
    7. Conservation, restoration and regeneration
    8. Monitoring
    1. You have free access to this content
      Exploiting avian vision with aircraft lighting to reduce bird strikes (pages 758–766)

      Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault, Thomas W. Seamans, Steven L. Lima, Patrice Baumhardt and Esteban Fernández-Juricic

      Version of Record online: 9 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02165.x

      Understanding animal sensory ecology and associated behaviours can aid the development of methods exploiting certain behaviours to reduce negative human–wildlife interactions. For example, reducing the frequency of bird strikes requires the integration of wildlife management efforts within and outside of the airport environment that target species resource use and response to disturbance, with mitigation techniques focused on the aircraft. Moreover, the design of aircraft lighting systems to enhance detection and avoidance by birds is contingent upon understanding avian visual ecology and behaviour. Based on spectral sensitivity in Canada geese, aircraft-mounted lights that peak in the ultraviolet/violet range (380–400 nm) are likely to produce the maximal behavioural effect.

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      A widespread contaminant enhances invasion success of a marine invader (pages 767–773)

      Louise A. McKenzie, Robert C. Brooks and Emma L. Johnston

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02158.x

      We found a direct positive effect of contamination on recruitment of a common invasive species. This process is likely to be relevant to other non-indigenous species (NIS) that exhibit a positive affiliation with metal contamination. Copper can potentially enhance success at multiple stages of the invasion process, including facilitating transport and establishment, by increasing the supply and retention of individuals into anthropogenically disturbed environments. Identification of tolerance to contamination as a species trait may also aid in predicting a species invasiveness and spread. Management of metal pollution through remediation and alternative copper-free antifouling techniques would help prevent the spread and establishment of many marine NIS.

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      Disentangling the effects of multiple anthropogenic drivers on the decline of two tropical dry forest trees (pages 774–784)

      Tamara Ticktin, Rengaian Ganesan, Mallegowda Paramesha and Siddappa Setty

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02156.x

      Our results illustrate that mistletoe and lantana, not fruit harvest, are the main drivers of amla decline, and these species are likely to be driving the decline of other Indian dry forest tree species. Management directed only at limiting fruit harvest will be ineffective. Instead, control of both invasive species combined with temporary protection from grazing is urgently needed. The ban on fruit harvest in Indian protected areas is not an effective conservation policy for these species. Harvest is not necessarily the main cause of decline for NTFP species. Management plans for NTFP and other at-risk species must consider the relative effects of different drivers of decline, including direct and indirect effects of invasive species.

  3. Management under climate change

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Assessing anthropogenic impacts
    4. Management under climate change
    5. Modelling for management
    6. Agroecosystems
    7. Conservation, restoration and regeneration
    8. Monitoring
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      Managing the long-term persistence of a rare cockatoo under climate change (pages 785–794)

      J. Berton C. Harris, Damien A. Fordham, Patricia A. Mooney, Lynn P. Pedler, Miguel B. Araújo, David C. Paton, Michael G. Stead, Michael J. Watts, H. Reşit Akçakaya and Barry W. Brook

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02163.x

      Mechanistic demographic-bioclimatic simulations that incorporate species interactions can provide more detailed viability analyses than traditional bioclimatic models and be used to rank the cost-effectiveness of management interventions. Our results highlight the importance of managing possum predation and maintaining high adult cockatoo survival. In contrast, corella and revegetation management could be experimentally reduced to save resources.

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      Integrating climate change into calcareous grassland management (pages 795–802)

      Jean-Paul Maalouf, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Lilian Marchand, Emilie Bâchelier, Blaise Touzard and Richard Michalet

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02151.x

      Regular mowing and drought events impact plant diversity of mesic and xeric calcareous grassland communities in different ways. We recommend regular mowing of mesic grasslands, even in the context of climate change. By contrast, we recommend less-frequent mowing of xeric grasslands together with specific interventions such as assisted migration for species with poor drought tolerance. Similar studies in other ecosystems on larger spatial and temporal scales should examine the dual effects of management and climate change to identify appropriate management programmes.

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      Multi-temporal distribution modelling with satellite tracking data: predicting responses of a long-distance migrant to changing environmental conditions (pages 803–813)

      Marion Gschweng, Elisabeth K. V. Kalko, Peter Berthold, Wolfgang Fiedler and Jakob Fahr

      Version of Record online: 3 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02170.x

      We present a transferable approach to predict the potential distribution of organisms as well as their dynamic response to changing environmental conditions. Future conservation management plans could include the prediction of a species’ reaction to changing land-use practices or climate change based on the methodology proposed here. This would provide an early warning system for the decline of populations wintering in remote areas that underlie strong climatic fluctuations.

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      Shifting thresholds and changing degradation patterns: climate change effects on the simulated long-term response of a semi-arid savanna to grazing (pages 814–823)

      Dirk Lohmann, Britta Tietjen, Niels Blaum, David F. Joubert and Florian Jeltsch

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02157.x

      Changes in livestock carrying capacities, both positive and negative, mainly depend on the highly uncertain future rainfall conditions. However, independent of the specific changes, shrub encroachment becomes less likely and in many cases less severe. Thus, managers of semi-arid rangelands should shift their focus from woody vegetation towards perennial grass species as indicators for rangeland degradation. Furthermore, the resulting reduced competition from woody vegetation has the potential to facilitate ecosystem restoration measures such as re-introduction of desirable plant species that are only little promising or infeasible under current climatic conditions. On a global scale, the reductions in standing biomass resulting from altered degradation dynamics of semi-arid rangelands can have negative impacts on carbon sequestration.

  4. Modelling for management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Assessing anthropogenic impacts
    4. Management under climate change
    5. Modelling for management
    6. Agroecosystems
    7. Conservation, restoration and regeneration
    8. Monitoring
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      Implementation uncertainty when using recreational hunting to manage carnivores (pages 824–832)

      Richard Bischof, Erlend B. Nilsen, Henrik Brøseth, Peep Männil, Jaānis Ozoliņš and John D. C. Linnell

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02167.x

      We investigated seven systems where authorities use recreational hunting to manage large carnivore populations. The variation and magnitude of deviation from harvest goals was substantial, underlining the need to incorporate implementation uncertainty into resource management models and decisions-making. We illustrate how survival analysis can be used by managers to estimate the performance of resource users with respect to achieving harvest goals set by managers. The findings in this study come at an opportune time given the growing popularity of management strategy evaluation (MSE) models in fisheries and a push towards incorporating MSE into terrestrial harvest management.

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      Making use of harvest information to examine alternative management scenarios: a body weight-structured model for wild boar (pages 833–841)

      Marlène Gamelon, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Sabrina Servanty, Olivier Gimenez, Carole Toïgo, Eric Baubet, François Klein and Jean-Dominique Lebreton

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02160.x

      We demonstrate that targeting hunting effort to specific body weight classes could reliably control population growth. Our modelling approach can be applied to any game species where group composition, phenotypic traits or coat colour allows hunters to easily identify sex and body weight classes. This offers a promising tool for applying selective hunting to the management of game species.

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      Using trait-based filtering as a predictive framework for conservation: a case study of bats on farms in southeastern Australia (pages 842–850)

      Jan Hanspach, Joern Fischer, Karen Ikin, Jenny Stott and Bradley S. Law

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02159.x

      Trait-based predictive frameworks enable landscape managers to assess how different management strategies and landscape modifications are likely to affect different species. Here, we propose a framework to derive general predictions of how bats respond to landscape modification, based on tree density and species traits. We apply this framework to a current conservation issue of tree decline in our study area and derive management priorities including: (i) maintaining a range of tree densities throughout the region; (ii) ensuring the persistence of locations with intermediate tree densities; and (iii) using environmentally sensitive grazing practices, for example, by incorporating long rest periods.

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      Comparing large-scale bioregions and fine-scale community-level biodiversity predictions from subtidal rocky reefs across south-eastern Australia (pages 851–860)

      Rebecca Leaper, Piers K. Dunstan, Scott D. Foster, Neville J. Barrett and Graham J. Edgar

      Version of Record online: 28 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02155.x

      While bioregionalisations are typically based on data from a single taxon, our findings highlight that they can be used as a surrogate for biological patterns seen in other taxa. Bioregionalisations, however, may not capture fully fine-scale community-level biodiversity patterns, and this may compromise the ability of protected area networks to protect the full variability in assemblage types. We suggest that it may be necessary to validate existing regionalisations with additional data and analyses such as the RAD analyses conducted here.

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      Contrasting taxonomic and functional responses of a tropical tree community to selective logging (pages 861–870)

      Christopher Baraloto, Bruno Hérault, C. E. Timothy Paine, Hélène Massot, Lilian Blanc, Damien Bonal, Jean-François Molino, Eric A. Nicolini and Daniel Sabatier

      Version of Record online: 4 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02164.x

      Our results suggest that managers of tropical forests should limit overall surface area converted to logging gaps by creating fewer, larger gaps during selective logging, to reduce impacts on the taxonomic and functional composition of the regenerating stand.

  5. Agroecosystems

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Assessing anthropogenic impacts
    4. Management under climate change
    5. Modelling for management
    6. Agroecosystems
    7. Conservation, restoration and regeneration
    8. Monitoring
    1. You have free access to this content
      Landscape-scale responses of birds to agri-environment management: a test of the English Environmental Stewardship scheme (pages 871–882)

      David J. Baker, Stephen N. Freeman, Phil V. Grice and Gavin M. Siriwardena

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02161.x

      This study demonstrates that agri-environment scheme management has the potential to have national-scale effects on avian population growth rates, although our results suggest that some components of the scheme have had little effect on bird populations. Therefore, whilst this study provides the first proof-of-concept for broad-and-shallow scheme impacts on biodiversity, our results underline the importance of targeting towards population-limiting factors, here winter food resources. A combination of low uptake of key in-field options that provide winter seed and a failure to cover the late-winter period effectively explains the lack of national population responses. Such issues need to be addressed before schemes like Environmental Stewardship will achieve their goals. This study shows the value of feedback from monitoring for informing scheme design, through identifying problems and testing solutions.

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      Effects of the proportion and spatial arrangement of un-cropped land on breeding bird abundance in arable rotations (pages 883–891)

      Ian G. Henderson, John M. Holland, Jonathan Storkey, Peter Lutman, Jim Orson and John Simper

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02166.x

      This study provides important evidence for a proportionate effect of habitat provision on farmland bird abundance. The relative area of un-cropped land had the strongest effect on bird abundance. Sites with <3% (and, to a lesser extent, <5%) un-cropped land were highly under-populated. A two-fold increase in the area of un-cropped land was associated with an average 16–53% increase in the relative abundance of key species, which has implications for the contribution of un-cropped areas towards population stabilization amongst farmland birds in Europe.

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      Macroinvertebrate responses along broad stressor gradients of deposited fine sediment and dissolved nutrients: a stream mesocosm experiment (pages 892–902)

      Annika Wagenhoff, Colin R. Townsend and Christoph D. Matthaei

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02162.x

      Managing both fine sediment and nutrient inputs from agriculture is crucial to achieve good stream condition but priority should be given to minimizing fine sediment, which should be maintained below a threshold of 5% cover and 0·5-mm depth. Managers also need to be wary of interactive multiple-stressor effects because ecological outcomes of an increase in stressor load may be worse than predicted based on the knowledge of single-stressor effects.

  6. Conservation, restoration and regeneration

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Assessing anthropogenic impacts
    4. Management under climate change
    5. Modelling for management
    6. Agroecosystems
    7. Conservation, restoration and regeneration
    8. Monitoring
    1. You have free access to this content
      Spatial heterogeneity across five rangelands managed with pyric-herbivory (pages 903–910)

      Devan A. McGranahan, David M. Engle, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Stephen J. Winter, James R. Miller and Diane M. Debinski

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02168.x

      Pyric-herbivory management for heterogeneity created patch contrast in vegetation across a broad range of precipitation and plant community types, provided that fire was the primary driver of grazer site selection. Management for heterogeneity did not universally create patch contrast. Stocking rate and invasive plant species are key regulators of heterogeneity, as they determine the influence of fire on the spatial pattern of fuel, vegetation structure and herbivore patch selection, and therefore also require careful management.

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      Twenty-five years of sagebrush steppe plant community development following seed addition (pages 911–918)

      Timothy B. Hoelzle, Jayne L. Jonas and Mark W. Paschke

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02154.x

      Our results illustrate how initial colonisers (seed mix) can strongly affect subsequent community assemblage after 25 years of development. Restoration ecologists should give considerable thought to the species used in a restoration seed mix to ensure the success of restoration designs and to create the desired community assembly and associated ecosystem services.

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      Identifying unidirectional and dynamic habitat filters to faunal recolonisation in restored mine-pits (pages 919–928)

      Michael D. Craig, Giles E. St J. Hardy, Joseph B. Fontaine, Mark J. Garkakalis, Andrew H. Grigg, Carl D. Grant, Patricia A. Fleming and Richard J. Hobbs

      Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02152.x

      Our study adds to growing evidence that filters to faunal recolonisation may be widespread in restored areas, with important implications for restoration practices. Firstly, examining individual species may more effectively identify filters than examining community successional patterns. Secondly, filters can persist over long time frames, possibly centuries, so management, such as the provision and accelerated development of CWD, may need to occur over similar time frames. Lastly, filters can be dynamic and repeated management interventions, such as thinning, may be required to overcome these filters. The growing evidence for filters suggests that facilitating faunal recolonisation is more complex than simply returning vegetation to restoration sites.

  7. Monitoring

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Assessing anthropogenic impacts
    4. Management under climate change
    5. Modelling for management
    6. Agroecosystems
    7. Conservation, restoration and regeneration
    8. Monitoring
    1. You have free access to this content
      Plant diversity and generation of ecosystem services at the landscape scale: expert knowledge assessment (pages 929–940)

      Sandra Quijas, Louise E. Jackson, Manuel Maass, Bernhard Schmid, David Raffaelli and Patricia Balvanera

      Version of Record online: 7 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02153.x

      The expert survey generated detailed information and new hypotheses on the relationship between plant diversity and services at the landscape scale. Future research is needed to test these hypotheses, yet the areas of agreement identified in this study can be used immediately, with caution, as synthetic expert knowledge at spatial scales that are relevant for management, to guide technological and policy interventions ensuring the maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery.

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      Urbanization interferes with the use of amphibians as indicators of ecological integrity of wetlands (pages 941–952)

      Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Earl D. McCoy, Anna C. Deyle, Shannon M. Gonzalez, Neal Halstead and Henry R. Mushinsky

      Version of Record online: 17 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02172.x

      Although anurans are effective indicators of wetland health and complement vegetation surveys, the usefulness of this group for monitoring the ecological integrity of wetlands can be substantially reduced, or eliminated, as a consequence of urbanization. We urge for careful consideration of confounding factors in any studies examining the utility of indicator species.

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      Improved detection of an alien invasive species through environmental DNA barcoding: the example of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus (pages 953–959)

      Tony Dejean, Alice Valentini, Christian Miquel, Pierre Taberlet, Eva Bellemain and Claude Miaud

      Version of Record online: 5 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02171.x

      The environmental DNA approach permits the early detection of alien invasive species (AIS), at very low densities and at any life stage, which is particularly important for the detection of rare and/or secretive aquatic species. This method can also be used to confirm the sensitivity of control operations and to better identify the distributions of vulnerable species, making this a very relevant tool for species inventory and management.

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      Aerial surveys of seabirds: the advent of digital methods (pages 960–967)

      Stephen T. Buckland, M. Louise Burt, Eric A. Rexstad, Matt Mellor, Adrian E. Williams and Rebecca Woodward

      Version of Record online: 31 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02150.x

      Efficient survey methods to quantify abundance and distribution of seabirds are needed, to assess change arising from climate change, or developments such as the construction of large-scale offshore wind farms. The traditional survey methods are visual surveys conducted along transects from ships or aircraft. Digital video and stills surveys can be conducted from aircraft flying sufficiently high to avoid disturbance, while still being able to detect and identify seabirds. Given the rapid technological developments, we expect digital surveys largely to replace visual surveys for seabirds in offshore regions.

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