Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 49 Issue 5

October 2012

Volume 49, Issue 5

Pages 969–1194

  1. Practitioner’s Perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. You have free access to this content
      Practical advice for implementing long-term ecosystem monitoring (pages 969–973)

      Christopher J. Sergeant, Brendan J. Moynahan and William F. Johnson

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02149.x

  2. Agroecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. Genotypically diverse cultivar mixtures for insect pest management and increased crop yields (pages 974–985)

      John F. Tooker and Steven D. Frank

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02173.x

      Intraspecific plant diversity can improve plant fitness via bottom–up and top–down effects on pest populations and niche partitioning. Further research is required to refine implementation practices and demonstrate value in terms of reduced pesticide use and increased yield. Growers can implement intraspecific crop diversity with minimal financial investment or changes in production practices. As the benefits of biodiversity for yield stability are increasingly recognized, intraspecific diversity is poised to become a prominent and sustainable management tactic.

  3. Biodiversity and species assessment

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. You have free access to this content
      The biodiversity audit approach challenges regional priorities and identifies a mismatch in conservation (pages 986–997)

      Paul M. Dolman, Christopher J. Panter and Hannah L. Mossman

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02174.x

      The biodiversity audit approach provides an objective model for prioritization and cost-effective conservation, applicable to regions of Europe where biodiversity has been well characterized. By using this approach to collate available information, management guilds with similar requirements can be defined across taxa, providing evidence-based guidance for regional conservation.

    2. Local-scale factors structure wild bee communities in protected areas (pages 998–1008)

      Tomás E. Murray, Úna Fitzpatrick, Andrew Byrne, Réamonn Fealy, Mark J. F. Brown and Robert J. Paxton

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02175.x

      Within habitats, local species richness, rather than species turnover at higher spatial scales, accounted for the majority of regional bee diversity. Local environmental factors were powerful determinants of community composition. Therefore, management effort prioritising the maintenance of a diversity of high-quality habitats within a broad network of protected areas best facilitates bee conservation in this system. At a regional level, schemes for conserving and restoring important bee habitats must be habitat- and taxon-specific, as the impact of individual local-scale factors and surrounding land-use on community composition is highly habitat- and taxon-dependent.

    3. Large carabid beetle declines in a United Kingdom monitoring network increases evidence for a widespread loss in insect biodiversity (pages 1009–1019)

      David R. Brooks, John E. Bater, Suzanne J. Clark, Don T. Monteith, Christopher Andrews, Stuart J. Corbett, Deborah A. Beaumont and Jason W. Chapman

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02194.x

      Our results highlight the need to assess trends for carabids, and probably other widespread and ubiquitous taxa, across regions and habitats to fully understand losses in biodiversity. Land management should be underpinned by a consideration of how wide-scale environmental drivers interact with habitat structure. The stability of population trends in woodlands and hedgerows of species that are declining elsewhere puts these habitats at the fore-front of integrated landscape management aimed at preserving their ecosystem services.

  4. Conservation planning

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. More bang for the land manager's buck: disturbance autocorrelation can be used to achieve management objectives at no additional cost (pages 1020–1027)

      Andrew Garrison, Adam Miller, Stephen H. Roxburgh and Katriona Shea

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02187.x

      Our results provide important insights into, and have potential application to, land management and conservation. While changing the intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbances can be costly, adjusting the temporal autocorrelation of disturbance occurrence may be considered a ‘no-cost manipulation’. In instances where a land manager lacks the funds or resources to manipulate other aspects of disturbance, such as intensity and frequency, changing the temporal autocorrelation may provide an effective, economical alternative.

    2. Using water residency time to enhance spatio-temporal connectivity for conservation planning in seasonally dynamic freshwater ecosystems (pages 1028–1035)

      Virgilio Hermoso, Doug P. Ward and Mark J. Kennard

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02191.x

      Considering the temporal connectivity in conservation prioritization as we propose here helps to assess periods of longest spatial connections, thereby maximizing the refugial role of freshwater priority areas during dry periods. Using publicly available satellite imagery data and software, our approach allows improved management of aquatic resources and biodiversity during periods of water scarcity, which may increase in incidence and duration with climate change.

    3. Merging connectivity rules and large-scale condition assessment improves conservation adequacy in river systems (pages 1036–1045)

      Simon Linke, Mark J. Kennard, Virgilio Hermoso, Julian D. Olden, Janet Stein and Bradley J. Pusey

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02177.x

      Improving conservation adequacy by accounting for upstream connectivity and condition using this easy-to-implement framework and software package has the potential to facilitate further application of systematic methods in river conservation planning. Furthermore, integrating condition as a discounting factor can also improve conservation adequacy in a broad range of environments (including terrestrial and marine), while not necessarily increasing the management costs.

  5. Monitoring and management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. Rigorous gharial population estimation in the Chambal: implications for conservation and management of a globally threatened crocodilian (pages 1046–1054)

      Tarun Nair, John B. Thorbjarnarson, Patrick Aust and Jagdish Krishnaswamy

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02189.x

      Used within the framework of capture–recapture analysis, photoidentification provides a reliable and noninvasive method of estimating population size and structure in crocodilians. We also opine that without determining the current status of gharials, highly intensive strategies, such as the egg-collection and rear-and-release programmes being implemented currently, initiated on the basis of underestimates of population sizes, are unwarranted and divert valuable conservation resources away from field-based protection measures, which are essential in the face of threats like hydrologic diversions, sand mining, fishing and bankside cultivation.

    2. Does environmental contamination influence egg coloration? A long-term study in herring gulls (pages 1055–1063)

      Daniel Hanley and Stéphanie M. Doucet

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02184.x

      Our study utilized a large, multi-year data set to provide the first evidence that a suite of environmental contaminants appear to influence avian eggshell coloration. We also found that objective spectrophotometric measurements provide a reliable tool for assessment of egg contaminant load, and we provide a discriminant function for contaminant classification directly in the field. Our findings should be broadly relevant, because the pigments responsible for avian egg coloration are shared across all birds. The application of eggshell colour as a bio-monitoring tool has important conservation and management applications; measuring egg coloration may provide a rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive means of estimating contaminant levels in the environment. This may provide an essential tool for monitoring areas or species of concern, as well as evaluating potential human health risks, by identifying populations supported by an environment that requires more attention and potentially environmental remediation.

    3. A continental-scale tool for acoustic identification of European bats (pages 1064–1074)

      Charlotte L. Walters, Robin Freeman, Alanna Collen, Christian Dietz, M. Brock Fenton, Gareth Jones, Martin K. Obrist, Sébastien J. Puechmaille, Thomas Sattler, Björn M. Siemers, Stuart Parsons and Kate E. Jones

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02182.x

      iBatsID is the first freely available and easily accessible continental-scale bat call classifier, providing the basis for standardized, continental acoustic bat monitoring in Europe. This method can provide key information to managers and conservation planners on distribution changes and changes in bat species activity through time.

  6. Habitat management and restoration

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. You have free access to this content
      The effects of large herbivore grazing on meadow steppe plant and insect diversity (pages 1075–1083)

      Hui Zhu, Deli Wang, Ling Wang, Yuguang Bai, Jian Fang and Jun Liu

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02195.x

      Grazing by large herbivores may reverse the positive relationship between plant diversity and insect diversity by modifying plant structural heterogeneity. Therefore, the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation structure should be given more attention in future work on plant–insect interactions. This study further highlights the importance of using large herbivore grazing in management actions, not only to maintain diversity but also to mediate trophic interactions in grasslands.

    2. Taxonomical and functional diversity turnover in Mediterranean grasslands: interactions between grazing, habitat type and rainfall (pages 1084–1093)

      Carlos P. Carmona, Francisco M. Azcárate, Francesco de Bello, Helios S. Ollero, Jan Lepš and Begoña Peco

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02193.x

      Results highlight the dependence of functional diversity on the combined effect of water availability and grazing regime. Under severely limited water availability, grazing intensification reduced the functional diversity of these grasslands. Because of the foreseeable reduction in water availability in Mediterranean environments, we recommend the adoption of flexible grazing management schemes that take species and functional diversities into account simultaneously and adapt the level of grazing pressure to water availability.

    3. Cultivar genotype, application and endophyte history affects community impact of Schedonorus arundinaceus (pages 1094–1102)

      Kathryn A. Yurkonis, Hafiz Maherali, Kim A. Bolton, John N. Klironomos and Jonathan A. Newman

      Article first published online: 24 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02188.x

      Schedonorus arundinaceus cultivars vary in their competitive ability and effects on communities, and this variation may be explained by the application for which the cultivars were developed, their endophyte status and genetic differences among cultivars within application categories. We recommend preferentially selecting cultivars developed for turf applications and cultivars with low seed endophyte presence to minimize negative effects of seeding a non-native grass on communities. However, final selections should be based on common trial performances because genetic differences between cultivars will affect their performance independently of their application category and endophyte status.

    4. Seed limitation during early forest succession in a rural landscape on Chiloé Island, Chile: implications for temperate forest restoration (pages 1103–1112)

      Marcela A. Bustamante-Sánchez and Juan J. Armesto

      Article first published online: 23 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02179.x

      Forest succession in this rural landscape may be delayed or arrested by extremely low seed rain, despite the proximity (<100 m) of seed sources in older forest patches. Although artificial perches significantly enhance inputs of bird-dispersed tree seeds into shrublands, especially where fleshy-fruited pioneer species are absent from the seral community, they do not overcome other site-related barriers to establishment, as the lack of shaded places and limited soil drainage. Thus, in some ecological contexts, multiple approaches, such as direct seeding or planting, and the use of nurse plants, may be required to enhance seed rain and seedling establishment of fleshy-fruited species.

  7. Management of invasive species

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. Predicting invasions: alternative models of human-mediated dispersal and interactions between dispersal network structure and Allee effects (pages 1113–1123)

      Corey Chivers and Brian Leung

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02183.x

      The dispersal and establishment of species into novel habitats are central components of the invasion process and of quantitative risk assessments. However, predictions are dependent on the estimated spatial structure of the dispersal network and its potential interactions with species characteristics. This study demonstrates that Allee effects can interact with dispersal network structure to significantly alter predicted spread rates and that the consequences of these interactions manifest differently at the system and site levels. This modelling framework can be used to inform management interventions aimed at modifying human-mediated dispersal to reduce the spread of invasive species.

    2. Role of domestic shipping in the introduction or secondary spread of nonindigenous species: biological invasions within the Laurentian Great Lakes (pages 1124–1130)

      Elizabeta Briski, Chris J. Wiley and Sarah A. Bailey

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02186.x

      Our study indicates that management of invasive species should consider ecological, not geographical or political boundaries. Domestic vessels operating within a limited geographic region have high potential to introduce or spread species with restricted distribution, demonstrating importance of intraregional ballast water management. Results presented here should interest policy makers and environmental managers who seek to reduce invasion risk.

    3. Effects of flood timing and livestock grazing on exotic annual plants in riverine floodplains (pages 1131–1139)

      Ian D. Lunt, Amy Jansen and Doug L. Binns

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02176.x

      Consistent with the terrestrialization hypothesis, short-duration floods provide a practical method for controlling exotic annual plants where river regulation has reduced the frequency of natural floods. As exotic impacts are greatest in dry periods, when exotics are most abundant, ecosystem benefits will be greatest when flooding leads to a protracted decline in exotic annuals during the dry (non-inundated) years following flood recession. Otherwise, reductions in exotic annuals may be transient and have little positive impact on floodplain ecosystems and processes.

    4. Plant traits predict the success of weed biocontrol (pages 1140–1148)

      Quentin Paynter, Jacob McC. Overton, Richard L. Hill, Stanley E. Bellgard and Murray I. Dawson

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02178.x

      Predictions generated by our model will assist weed prioritisation by improving the ability to predict the success of weed biocontrol. Nevertheless, prioritisation must also consider the importance of the candidate target weeds. Species that are predicted to be difficult targets could be targeted for biocontrol, provided that they are sufficiently important to offset the increased risk of failure against the greater benefits of successful control. Further investigation is needed to assess the ability of successful pioneering programmes to predict the success of repeat programmes in other locations, particularly in conjunction with plant traits.

  8. Human-wildlife conflict

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. Combining multi-scale socio-ecological approaches to understand the susceptibility of subsistence farmers to elephant crop raiding on the edge of a protected area (pages 1149–1158)

      Chloé Guerbois, Eunice Chapanda and Hervé Fritz

      Article first published online: 20 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02192.x

      This paper provides evidence that multi-scale multidisciplinary approaches can unravel endogenous processes shaping human–elephant coexistence on the edge of protected areas. We believe that manipulating perceived risks for elephants, through mitigation methods based on the ‘ecology of fear’, and spatial organization of households, could create a ‘soft fence’ which, when combined with adequate incentives to farmers, promotes a better integration of the protected area in its territory.

    2. Vehicle traffic shapes grizzly bear behaviour on a multiple-use landscape (pages 1159–1167)

      Joseph M. Northrup, Justin Pitt, Tyler B. Muhly, Gordon B. Stenhouse, Marco Musiani and Mark S. Boyce

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02180.x

      Grizzly bear responses to traffic caused a departure from typical behavioural patterns, with bears in our study being largely nocturnal. In addition, bears selected private agricultural land, which had lower traffic levels, but higher road density, over multi-use public land. These results improve our understanding of bear responses to roads and can be used to refine management practices. Future management plans should employ a multi-pronged approach aimed at limiting both road density and traffic in core habitats. Access management will be critical in such plans and is an important tool for conserving threatened wildlife populations.

  9. Avian responses to disturbance

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner’s Perspective
    3. Agroecology
    4. Biodiversity and species assessment
    5. Conservation planning
    6. Monitoring and management
    7. Habitat management and restoration
    8. Management of invasive species
    9. Human-wildlife conflict
    10. Avian responses to disturbance
    1. Local depletion by a fishery can affect seabird foraging (pages 1168–1177)

      Sophie Bertrand, Rocío Joo, Claude Arbulu Smet, Yann Tremblay, Christophe Barbraud and Henri Weimerskirch

      Article first published online: 22 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02190.x

      We show that the foraging efficiency of breeding seabirds may be significantly affected by not only the global quantity, but also the temporal and spatial patterns of fishery removals. Together with an ecosystem-based definition of the fishery quota, an EAF should limit the risk of local depletion around breeding colonies using, for instance, adaptive marine protected areas.

    2. Topography drives migratory flight altitude of golden eagles: implications for on-shore wind energy development (pages 1178–1186)

      Todd E. Katzner, David Brandes, Tricia Miller, Michael Lanzone, Charles Maisonneuve, Junior A. Tremblay, Robert Mulvihill and George T. Merovich Jr

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02185.x

      Our research outlines the general effects of topography on raptor flight altitude and demonstrates how topography can interact with raptor migration behaviour to drive a potential human–wildlife conflict resulting from wind energy development. Management of risk to migratory species from industrial-scale wind turbines should consider the behavioural differences between both locally moving and actively migrating individuals. Additionally, risk assessment for wind energy–wildlife interactions should incorporate the consequences of topography on the flight altitude of potentially impacted wildlife.

    3. Radar monitoring of migrating pink-footed geese: behavioural responses to offshore wind farm development (pages 1187–1194)

      Pawel Plonczkier and Ian C. Simms

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2012.02181.x

      Migratory geese responded to offshore wind farms by adopting strong horizontal and vertical avoidance behaviour. For the first time, wind farm avoidance rates have been recorded for pink-footed geese, and these rates will allow more robust impact assessments to be undertaken for both this species and waterfowl in general. Remote sensing techniques should be used to undertake long-term impact assessments at offshore wind farms to provide an evidence-base for assessing the mortality risk for migratory birds.

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