You have free access to this content

Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 1

February 2013

Volume 50, Issue 1

Pages 1–279

  1. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Celebrating the golden jubilee of the Journal of Applied Ecology (pages 1–3)

      E.J. Milner-Gulland, Jos Barlow, Marc Cadotte, Philip Hulme and Mark J. Whittingham

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12045

  2. Applied ecology in emerging economies

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Applied ecology in India: scope of science and policy to meet contemporary environmental and socio-ecological challenges (pages 4–14)

      Navinder J. Singh and Sumanta Bagchi

      Version of Record online: 7 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12020

      India's environmental concerns include, but are not restricted to, the biodiversity crisis. The biodiversity crisis, in turn, includes, but is not restricted to, the most charismatic species. Greater integration and alignment among the mandates of government agencies, scientists, policymakers and educators are needed to meet contemporary environmental issues.

  3. Urbanization

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Fearing the feline: domestic cats reduce avian fecundity through trait-mediated indirect effects that increase nest predation by other species (pages 15–24)

      Colin Bonnington, Kevin J. Gaston and Karl L. Evans

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12025

      The brief presence of a domestic cat at avian nest sites reduces subsequent provisioning rates and induces lethal trait-mediated indirect effects. We provide the first robust evidence for these latter effects in any avian predator–prey system, although they are likely to be common in many avian assemblages with high predator densities. It is imperative that future assessments of the impact of predatory species on avian prey species take lethal trait-mediated indirect effects into account, as so doing will prevent biased estimates of predator effects and facilitate the design of more effective control strategies. Full mitigation of the sublethal and indirect effects of domestic cats would problematically require permanent indoor housing.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Reproductive failure of a long-lived wetland tree in urban lands and managed forests (pages 25–33)

      Lisa A. McCauley, David G. Jenkins and Pedro F. Quintana-Ascencio

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12006

      Urbanization is associated with the eventual reproductive failure of cypress and in the absence of management practice changes, cypress recruitment may cease in many additional wetlands. If past urbanization rates continue, 80–90% of cypress populations in isolated wetlands in the path of urban sprawl could permanently cease recruitment in 100 years. Reducing urban sprawl and introducing prescribed fire in managed-forest cypress domes could mitigate this effect and conserve reproduction of this long-lived, dominant tree species and the diversity of the wetlands they typify.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Urbanization and wetland communities: applying metacommunity theory to understand the local and landscape effects (pages 34–42)

      Pieter T. J. Johnson, Jason T. Hoverman, Valerie J. McKenzie, Andrew R. Blaustein and Katherine L. D. Richgels

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12022

      These results highlight the importance of considering both local and regional factors in addressing conservation-related challenges and underscore the benefits of linking conceptual work on metacommunity theory with applied efforts to mitigate the effects of urbanization.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Potential effects of artificial light associated with anthropogenic infrastructure on the abundance and foraging behaviour of estuary-associated fishes (pages 43–50)

      Alistair Becker, Alan K. Whitfield, Paul D. Cowley, Johanna Järnegren and Tor F. Næsje

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12024

      As a consequence of a positive phototaxic response, the findings of this study suggest that artificial light often associated with man-made structures has the potential to alter fish communities within urban estuarine ecosystems by creating optimal conditions for predators. Future coastal developments should consider the ecological implications of lighting on aquatic communities. We recommend that lighting be minimized around coastal infrastructure and the use of red lights, which have limited penetration though water, be considered.

  4. Environmental change

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Disrupting the effects of synergies between stressors: improved water quality dampens the effects of future CO2 on a marine habitat (pages 51–58)

      Laura J. Falkenberg, Sean D. Connell and Bayden D. Russell

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12019

      As stressors accumulate across global to local scales, some combine to produce synergistic effects which cause changes of disproportionate ecological magnitude. While strong synergies attract heavy scrutiny, there remains substantial merit in assessing whether their influence can be ameliorated by managing a contributing stressor. Of note, we show that by reducing a locally determined stressor (nutrients), its synergistic effects with a globally determined stressor (CO2 enrichment) on a key taxon (turf algae) may be substantially reduced. These results suggest that in the face of changing climate (e.g. ocean acidification), the management of local stressors (e.g. water pollution) may have a greater contribution in determining the dominant state than current thinking allows.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Carnivore conservation in practice: replicated management actions on a large spatial scale (pages 59–67)

      Anders Angerbjörn, Nina E. Eide, Love Dalén, Bodil Elmhagen, Peter Hellström, Rolf A. Ims, Siw Killengreen, Arild Landa, Tomas Meijer, Matti Mela, Jukka Niemimaa, Karin Norén, Magnus Tannerfeldt, Nigel G. Yoccoz and Heikki Henttonen

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12033

      The present study demonstrates that carnivore population declines may be reversed through extensive actions that target specific threats. Fennoscandian arctic fox is still endangered, due to low population connectivity and expected climate impacts on the distribution and dynamics of lemmings and red foxes. Climate warming is expected to contribute to both more irregular lemming dynamics and red fox appearance in tundra areas; however, the effects of climate change can be mitigated through intensive management actions such as supplemental feeding and red fox control.

    3. You have free access to this content
      A framework for understanding semi-permeable barrier effects on migratory ungulates (pages 68–78)

      Hall Sawyer, Matthew J. Kauffman, Arthur D. Middleton, Thomas A. Morrison, Ryan M. Nielson and Teal B. Wyckoff

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12013

      In contrast to impermeable barriers that impede animal movement, semi-permeable barriers allow animals to maintain connectivity between their seasonal ranges. Our results identify the mechanisms (e.g. detouring, increased movement rates, reduced stopover use) by which semi-permeable barriers affect the functionality of ungulate migration routes and emphasize that the management of semi-permeable barriers may play a key role in the conservation of migratory ungulate populations.

  5. Restoration

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Non-random extinctions dominate plant community changes in abandoned coppices (pages 79–87)

      Martin Kopecký, Radim Hédl and Péter Szabó

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12010

      The dominant process after the abandonment of coppicing was the ecologically non-random extinction of light-demanding species, leading to an impoverished, temporally nested plant community structure. This development is typical for many abandoned coppices and poses a significant threat to forest biodiversity in Europe. If forestry and conservation policies continue to prefer closed-canopy stands, many endangered species are likely to pay their extinction debts. To restore declining or even locally extinct species, canopy opening in abandoned coppices is urgently needed.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Testing applied nucleation as a strategy to facilitate tropical forest recovery (pages 88–96)

      Rakan A. Zahawi, Karen D. Holl, Rebecca J. Cole and J. Leighton Reid

      Version of Record online: 10 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12014

      Applied nucleation is a promising restoration strategy that can accelerate forest recovery to a similar degree as plantation-style restoration but is more economical. Appropriate island size is on the order of c. 100 m2. Practitioners should consider the methodology as an alternative to large-scale plantings.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Functional diversity in a large river floodplain: anticipating the response of native and alien macroinvertebrates to the restoration of hydrological connectivity (pages 97–106)

      Amael Paillex, Sylvain Dolédec, Emmanuel Castella, Sylvie Mérigoux and David C. Aldridge

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12018

      The lateral hydrological connectivity (LHC) represents a key parameter for explaining the functional diversity (FD) of macroinvertebrates in a floodplain ecosystem. Our results demonstrate that restoration-induced changes to functional diversity can be predicted. Controversially, restoration-induced enhancement of lateral hydrological connectivity increased the functional diversity of the alien macroinvertebrates. However, these species contributed only to a small part of the total macroinvertebrate functional diversity. We recommend that restoration programmes diversify the levels of lateral hydrological connectivity among the channels to ensure an optimal functional diversity at the floodplain scale.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Gauging recovery of zooplankton from historical acid and metal contamination: the influence of temporal changes in restoration targets (pages 107–118)

      Michelle E. Palmer, Wendel (Bill) Keller and Norman D. Yan

      Version of Record online: 3 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12007

      Our results show that the choice of reference condition can alter recovery assessments. This finding emphasizes the importance of establishing clearly defined restoration goals to ensure appropriate choice of reference conditions. Restoration is unlikely to be judged as successful if an historical reference point is used to guide management actions meant to restore an ecosystem to present-day regional conditions.

    5. You have free access to this content
      Aquatic ecosystem functions of an isolated floodplain and their implications for flood retention and management (pages 119–128)

      Walter Reckendorfer, Andrea Funk, Christine Gschöpf, Thomas Hein and Fritz Schiemer

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12029

      The increasing problems with catastrophic flooding have forced decision makers to seek basin-wide solutions with focus on ‘more room for the river’ and the reintegration of former floodplains as retention basins. Such reintegrations also represent opportunities to improve the ecological conditions for nature development in addition to their principal function, that is, the storage of water during floods. The results of our study can serve as an effective tool to predict the effects of alternative management options and to establish and define the design criteria of water retention areas with regard to their ecological functions, life spans and biodiversity.

  6. Control of invasives

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Identifying optimal barriers to halt the invasion of cane toads Rhinella marina in arid Australia (pages 129–137)

      Reid Tingley, Benjamin L. Phillips, Mike Letnic, Gregory P. Brown, Richard Shine and Stuart J. E. Baird

      Version of Record online: 12 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12021

      We present a modelling framework that can be used to focus management activities within invasion corridors. Our analyses suggest that strategic removal of potential invasion hubs along such corridors can halt the spread of an invasive species.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Propagule pressure, not fire or cattle grazing, promotes invasion of buffel grass Cenchrus ciliaris (pages 138–146)

      Rod J. Fensham, Sam Donald and John M. Dwyer

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12009

      The invasion of buffel grass accelerates during abundant rainfall after drought and is enhanced by propagule pressure, dispersal trajectories and under trees, probably as a result of nutrient enrichment. Disturbance had little influence on invasion, and there is no support for fire-promoted invasion as predicted by the grass–fire cycle theory.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Invasive species management restores a plant–pollinator mutualism in Hawaii (pages 147–155)

      Cause Hanna, David Foote and Claire Kremen

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12027

      Fruit production of the native M. polymorpha was increased after management of the invasive pollinator predator V. pensylvanica; however, the main pollinators were no longer native but introduced. This research thus demonstrates the diverse impacts of introduced species on ecological function and the ambiguous role they play in restoration. We recommend incorporating ecological function and context into invasive species management as this approach may enable conservation managers to simultaneously minimize the negative and maximize the positive impacts (e.g. taxon substitution) of introduced species. Such novel restoration approaches are needed, especially in highly degraded ecosystems.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Overcoming resistance and resilience of an invaded community is necessary for effective restoration: a multi-site bracken control study (pages 156–167)

      Josu G. Alday, Emma S. Cox, Robin J. Pakeman, Mike P. K. Harris, Mike G. LeDuc and Rob H. Marrs

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12015

      There are two important results for land managers: (i) where Calluna heathland is the target, ‘repeated’ treatments (cutting once or twice per year) were effective in overcoming the resistance of invaded community and moving species composition towards the target state, effectively creating an alternative state; (ii) where acid grassland is the target both ‘one-off’ and ‘repeated’ treatments overcame the invaded community resistance (‘one-off’ also overcame resilience) producing changes in species composition in the desired direction. The effectiveness of ‘one-off’ treatments was site dependent and produced alternative stable states within 10 years. In contrast, ‘repeated’ treatments were site independent but took longer to work and were more expensive.

  7. Biodiversity monitoring

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Hunter selection and long-term trend (1881–2008) of red deer trophy sizes in Hungary (pages 168–180)

      Inger Maren Rivrud, Krisztina Sonkoly, Róbert Lehoczki, Sándor Csányi, Geir Olve Storvik and Atle Mysterud

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12004

      Trophy hunting does not necessarily lead to a non-reversible decline in trophy size, even over century-long time-scales. To ensure sustainable trophy hunting management, we need to consider factors such as spatial and temporal refuges, compensatory culling, saving stags until prime-age culmination and higher prices for larger trophies.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Temperature effects on pitfall catches of epigeal arthropods: a model and method for bias correction (pages 181–189)

      Pavel Saska, Wopke van der Werf, Lia Hemerik, Martin L. Luff, Timothy D. Hatten and Alois Honek

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12023

      The effect of temperature on pitfall catches is shown here to be substantial and worthy of consideration when interpreting results of pitfall trapping. The exponential model can be used both for effect estimation and for bias correction of observed data. Correcting for temperature-related trapping bias is straightforward and enables population estimates to be more comparable. It may thus improve data interpretation in ecological, conservation and monitoring studies, and assist in better management and conservation of habitats and ecosystem services. Nevertheless, field ecologists should remain vigilant for other sources of bias.

    3. You have free access to this content
      Fine-tuning the assessment of large-scale temporal trends in biodiversity using the example of British breeding birds (pages 190–198)

      Angelika C. Studeny, Stephen T. Buckland, Philip J. Harrison, Janine B. Illian, Anne E. Magurran and Stuart E. Newson

      Version of Record online: 17 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12026

      Bird populations are seen as useful indicators of the health of wildlife and the countryside because they occupy a range of habitats, they tend to be towards the top of the food chain, and data is provided by long-term surveys. Hence, many countries apply wild bird indicators (WBIs), quantifying trends in biodiversity, to monitor environmental health. The UK's WBI, for example, has become one of the government's headline indicators of sustainable development. Understanding the population changes underlying the estimated trends is indispensable if we are to allocate limited resources more effectively. Employing a novel set of measures alongside the traditional geometric mean index, we analyse diversity trends among British breeding birds. It reveals that species that are scarce, but not yet in the focus of conservation action, may be the ‘losers’ in biodiversity action plans. This suggests that additional resources should be devoted to species showing long-term decline before they reach the low population levels that currently trigger large-scale species-specific rescue projects.

  8. Conservation planning

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Integrating applied ecology and planning policy: the case of micro-turbines and wildlife conservation (pages 199–204)

      Kirsty J. Park, Alex Turner and Jeroen Minderman

      Version of Record online: 5 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/jpe.12005

      We argue that (i) further research on the effects of micro-turbines on wildlife should take into account the needs of stakeholders, in particular, with regard to how effects may vary in different contexts; (ii) better planning guidance should be developed urgently, incorporating all available evidence and identifying further research needs; and (iii) a working group including representatives from the turbine industry, ecologists, policy makers and statutory bodies should be set up to streamline this process. These recommendations provide a starting point for on-the-ground turbine installers, planners and ecologists, and a way forward for managing the future planning process for micro-turbines.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Exploring the mesofilter as a novel operational scale in conservation planning (pages 205–214)

      Casparus J. Crous, Michael J. Samways and James S. Pryke

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12012

      The results indicate that the use of an abiotic surrogate such as rockiness can predict biodiversity value across multiple taxa. The mesofilter is therefore a valuable surrogacy and congruency tool for practical biodiversity conservation across this landscape and would likely have similar value if explored elsewhere. It also has value in the design and management of protected areas.

  9. Disease control

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      More rapid and severe disease outbreaks for aquaculture at the tropics: implications for food security (pages 215–222)

      Tommy L. F. Leung and Amanda E. Bates

      Version of Record online: 5 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2644.12017

      Disease can present a major problem for food production and security in equatorial regions where fish and shellfish provide a major source of dietary protein. As the incidences of some infectious diseases may increase with climate change, adaptation strategies must consider global patterns in disease vulnerability of aquaculture and develop options to minimize impacts on food production.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Estimating transmission of avian influenza in wild birds from incomplete epizootic data: implications for surveillance and disease spread (pages 223–231)

      Viviane Hénaux, Jane Parmley, Catherine Soos and Michael D. Samuel

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12031

      Our study highlights the potential of integrating incomplete surveillance data with epizootic models to quantify disease transmission and immunity. This modelling approach provides an important tool to understand spatial and temporal epizootic dynamics and inform disease surveillance. Our findings suggest focusing highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv) surveillance on postbreeding areas where mortality of immunologically naïve hatch-year birds is most likely to occur, and collecting serology to enhance HPAIv detection. Our modelling approach can integrate various types of disease data facilitating its use with data from other surveillance programs (as illustrated by the estimation of infection rate during an HPAIv outbreak in mute swans Cygnus olor in Europe).

    3. You have free access to this content
      Modelling the spatial distribution of Culicoides biting midges at the local scale (pages 232–242)

      Georgette Kluiters, David Sugden, Helene Guis, K. Marie McIntyre, Karien Labuschagne, Maria J. Vilar and Matthew Baylis

      Version of Record online: 21 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12030

      At a large spatial scale, there is significant variation in Culicoides Obsoletus Group abundance, which undermines attempts to record their nationwide distribution in larger-scale models. Satellite data can be used to explain a high proportion of this variation and, if shown to be generalizable, they may produce effective predictive models of disease vector abundance. We recommend undertaking a prior survey for farms with high Culicoides catches within the sampling area and checking stability in catch size between seasons and years.

    4. You have free access to this content
      Intensified agricultural use of grasslands reduces growth and survival of precocial shorebird chicks (pages 243–251)

      Rosemarie Kentie, Jos C. E. W. Hooijmeijer, Krijn B. Trimbos, Niko M. Groen and Theunis Piersma

      Version of Record online: 2 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12028

      We found striking differences between chicks hatched on modern grassland monocultures and herb-rich meadows. That chicks hatched on monocultures had lower growth and survival rates than chicks on meadows indicates that these chicks suffer a higher risk of starvation and/or predation. These findings imply that the most often applied agri-environmental schemes (i.e. payments per clutch found and postponed mowing), are not effective. Instead, these schemes could even encourage maladaptive habitat choice. Conservation efforts should thus focus on the provision of herb-rich meadows with high groundwater tables.

    5. You have free access to this content
      Landscape connectivity, habitat structure and activity of bat guilds in farmland-dominated matrices (pages 252–261)

      Annie Frey-Ehrenbold, Fabio Bontadina, Raphaël Arlettaz and Martin K. Obrist

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12034

      This study highlights the importance of connectivity in farmland landscapes for bats, with shorter-range echolocating bats being particularly sensitive to habitat fragmentation. More structurally diverse landscape elements are likely to reduce population declines of bats and could improve conditions for other declining species, including birds. Activity was highest around optimal values of connectivity, which must be evaluated for the different guilds and spatially targeted for a region's habitat configuration. In a multi-species approach, we recommend the reintroduction of structural elements to increase habitat heterogeneity should become part of agri-environment schemes.

  10. Bio-control

    1. Top of page
    2. Editorial
    3. Applied ecology in emerging economies
    4. Urbanization
    5. Environmental change
    6. Restoration
    7. Control of invasives
    8. Biodiversity monitoring
    9. Conservation planning
    10. Disease control
    11. Bio-control
    1. You have free access to this content
      Effects of predator specialization, host plant and climate on biological control of aphids by natural enemies: a meta-analysis (pages 262–270)

      Eva Diehl, Elvira Sereda, Volkmar Wolters and Klaus Birkhofer

      Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12032

      Specialist predators alone or assemblages of specialists and generalists had the strongest effect on aphid populations, especially when either feeding on grasses and herbs or when exposed to extreme weather events. The control of aphids by natural enemies is most promising in grass and herb crops, whereas it is less suited for controlling aphids in legume crops. Facing climate change, the effect of extreme weather events on aphid control by natural enemies will have further implications for developing management strategies for aphid control in the future.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Intraguild predation in winter wheat: prey choice by a common epigeal carabid consuming spiders (pages 271–279)

      Jeffrey S. Davey, Ian P. Vaughan, R. Andrew King, James R. Bell, David A. Bohan, Michael W. Bruford, John M. Holland and William O. C. Symondson

      Version of Record online: 4 DEC 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12008

      High levels of intraguild predation were revealed using molecular diagnostics. The gut analysis approach provided invaluable data that will inform the future design of appropriate pest management and integrated farming strategies that encourage these predators. The data showed strong evidence of prey choice. Managers can, however, probably encourage high densities of all these known aphid predators (spiders and carabids) because disproportionately high rates of predation on the most common spiders at our field sites (T. tenuis) were not sufficient to prevent strong growth in the density of this species between June and August (adults increased × 1·6 and juveniles × 8·6). Such work is essential if we are to reveal the processes behind functional biodiversity in crops.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION