Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 3

June 2013

Volume 50, Issue 3

Pages 539–805

  1. Practitioner's Perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. You have free access to this content
      A partnership approach to addressing applied ecological research needs of an oil and gas business (pages 539–543)

      Paola Maria Pedroni, Hernan Jaramillo, C. María de Lourdes Torres, Z. Hugo Navarrete, Julio Bernal-Ramirez and Timothy Reed

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12088

  2. Human–wildlife interactions

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Hunting for fear: innovating management of human–wildlife conflicts (pages 544–549)

      Joris P.G.M. Cromsigt, Dries P.J. Kuijper, Marius Adam, Robert L. Beschta, Marcin Churski, Amy Eycott, Graham I.H. Kerley, Atle Mysterud, Krzysztof Schmidt and Kate West

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12076

      Hunting for fear asks for novel, potentially controversial, ways of hunting to induce strong enough risk effects, including more hunting on foot and with dogs, extended hunting seasons (ideally year-round) and increased hunting of calves. Hunting for fear may offer novel opportunities to help manage the growing human–wildlife conflicts that we experience globally.

    2. People, predators and perceptions: patterns of livestock depredation by snow leopards and wolves (pages 550–560)

      Kulbhushansingh R. Suryawanshi, Yash Veer Bhatnagar, Stephen Redpath and Charudutt Mishra

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12061

      Our results show that (i) human perceptions can be at odds with actual patterns of livestock depredation, (ii) increases in wild prey populations will intensify livestock depredation by snow leopards, and prey recovery programmes must be accompanied by measures to protect livestock, (iii) compensation or insurance programmes should target large-bodied livestock in snow leopard habitats and (iv) sustained awareness programmes are much needed, especially for the wolf.

  3. Ecosystem services

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Exploring the ecological constraints to multiple ecosystem service delivery and biodiversity (pages 561–571)

      Lindsay C. Maskell, Andrew Crowe, Michael J. Dunbar, Bridget Emmett, Peter Henrys, Aidan M. Keith, Lisa R. Norton, Paul Scholefield, Douglas B. Clark, Ian C. Simpson and Simon M. Smart

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12085

      Using techniques such as response curves to analyse multiple service interactions can inform the development of Spatial Decision Support tools and landscape-scale ecosystem service management options. At intermediate productivity, ‘land-sharing’ would optimize multiple services, however, to deliver significant soil carbon storage ‘land-sparing’ is required, that is, resources focused in low productivity areas with high carbon to maximize investment return. This study emphasizes that targets for services per unit area need to be set within the context of the national gradients reported here to ensure best use of limited resources.

    2. Measuring the relative resilience of subarctic lakes to global change: redundancies of functions within and across temporal scales (pages 572–584)

      David G. Angeler, Craig R. Allen and Richard K. Johnson

      Article first published online: 29 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12092

      The effects of global change can be particularly strong at a single scale in ecosystems. Over time, this can cause monotonic change in communities and eventually lead to a loss of important ecosystem services upon reaching a critical threshold. Dynamics at other spatial or temporal scales can be unrelated to environmental change. The relative ‘intactness’ of these scales that are unaffected by global change and the persistence of functions at those scales may safeguard the whole system from the potential loss of functions at the scale at which global change impacts can be substantial. Thus, an understanding of scale-specific processes provides managers with a realistic assessment of vulnerabilities and the relative resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. Explicit consideration of ‘intact’ and ‘affected’ scales in analyses of global change impacts provides opportunities to tailor more specific management plans.

    3. Changing weather conditions and floating plants in temperate drainage ditches (pages 585–593)

      Edwin T. H. M Peeters, Jeroen P. van Zuidam, Bastiaan G. van Zuidam, Egbert H. Van Nes, Sarian Kosten, Peter G. M. Heuts, Rudi M. M. Roijackers, Jordie J. C. Netten and Marten Scheffer

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12066

      Global warming may lead to an increase in the dominance of free-floating plants in drainage ditches in the Netherlands. The expected reductions in nutrient-loading to surface waters as a result of different measures taken so far are likely not sufficient to counteract these effects of warming. Therefore, additional measures should be taken to avoid a further deterioration of the ecological water quality in ditches.

  4. Fire regimes for management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Fire variability, as well as frequency, can explain coexistence between seeder and resprouter life histories (pages 594–602)

      Caroline M. Tucker and Marc W. Cadotte

      Article first published online: 26 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12073

      Mediterranean ecosystems tend to have high plant diversity, and yet the mechanisms maintaining this diversity are often incompletely understood, and thus management actions that aim to promote coexistence may be relying on imprecise information. In general, fire events drive the evolution and maintenance of diversity and are an important management tool. It is high likely that fluctuations or variability in fire are also important, and this suggests that invariant regimes of prescribed burning or fire suppression could be detrimental to the mechanisms that play a role in the maintenance of diversity in these Mediterranean ecosystems. As a result, attention should be paid to historical fire regimes and the variation in fire return times they displayed when developing prescribed burning regimes.

    2. Refining thresholds in coupled fire–vegetation models to improve management of encroaching woody plants in grasslands (pages 603–613)

      Dirac Twidwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Charles A. Taylor Jr and William E. Rogers

      Article first published online: 12 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12063

      For scientific information associated with the threshold concept to be useful to practitioners, specific information is needed that demonstrates how to use restoration activities to overcome thresholds and collapse the current, degraded state in favour of a more desired ecological state. With this in mind, we present a broadly applicable decision support model within a state and transition framework that identifies the ecological states where the surface fire intensity–mortality threshold is most likely to meet restoration objectives and provides examples of how fuel properties that drive fire intensity should be targeted in restoration to surpass this threshold.

    3. Matrix modelling of prescribed burning in Calluna vulgaris-dominated moorland: short burning rotations minimize carbon loss at increased wildfire frequencies (pages 614–624)

      Katherine A. Allen, Michael P. K. Harris and Rob H. Marrs

      Article first published online: 9 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12075

      The modelling approach outlined here provides a first approximation to the above-ground carbon balance between prescribed burning and wildfire frequency at a single site. This may be useful in other dwarf-shrub-dominated ecosystems if prescribed burning is to be used to mitigate the effects of wildfire. At our study site, long prescribed-burning rotations may minimize carbon loss at low wildfire return intervals. However, if wildfire incidence increases, more frequent prescribed burning is likely to minimize overall carbon loss. Well-informed prescribed burning on a short rotation may produce smaller carbon losses than longer rotations under future climate conditions.

    4. Long-term effects of rotational prescribed burning and low-intensity sheep grazing on blanket-bog plant communities (pages 625–635)

      Hyohyemi Lee, Josu G. Alday, Rob J. Rose, John O'Reilly and Rob H. Marrs

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12078

      Our findings suggest that blanket-bog vegetation on peat responds to prescribed burning in a complex manner. Where burn return interval is long (>20 years), C. vulgaris becomes dominant and there was no evidence that preferred peat-forming species (Eriophorum/Sphagnum) increased. Where burn return interval is short (10 years), E. vaginatum/Sphagnum abundance increased. We found no evidence to suggest that prescribed burning was deleterious to the abundance of peat-forming species; indeed, it was found to favour them. These results inform conservation management policy for blanket bogs in the UK and more generally for future wildfire-mitigation strategies on dwarf-shrub-dominated peatlands elsewhere. Some lessons for the management of long-term experimental studies are also discussed.

    5. Rotational vegetation burning effects on peatland stream ecosystems (pages 636–648)

      Sorain J. Ramchunder, Lee E. Brown and Joseph Holden

      Article first published online: 5 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12082

      This study suggests that some aspects of peatland stream ecosystems are altered in catchments with rotational vegetation burning. Currently, there is much emphasis on the effects of rotational burning on peat carbon stores, but this study is the first to document the impacts on stream biota. Agencies with a remit covering upland freshwater ecosystem management might need to consider ways of reducing the extent of rotational vegetation burning to prevent effects on lotic ecosystems, and monitor whether macroinvertebrate assemblages subsequently shift back to a status similar to those in intact peatland streams. Fire occurs commonly on peatlands throughout the world, and our results suggest that trade-offs are needed to satisfy both economic and ecological facets of the combined social–ecological systems in such areas, especially where fire is implemented as a management tool.

  5. Freshwater and marine management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Potential consequences of discard reform for seabird communities (pages 649–658)

      Anthony W. J. Bicknell, Daniel Oro, Kees (C.J.) Camphuysen and Stephen C. Votier

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12072

      Reform of the Common Fisheries Policy and global discard declines are essential components towards creating sustainable fisheries, but may have both detrimental and beneficial effects on seabird communities. The nature of these impacts is still poorly understood, highlighting the need for detailed long-term seabird monitoring, as well as building resilience into populations through policy measures that incorporate remedial action on major seabird conservation priorities. Research should focus on understanding how seabird foraging, in terms of functional responses and searching behaviour, is influenced by both changing discards and natural fish prey availability, and how they impact upon fitness. It is also essential to link individual-level responses with population-, community- and ecosystem-level change. Understanding these links is fundamental to ongoing seabird management and conservation, and an ecosystem-based approach to fisheries management.

    2. Are Cape gannets dependent upon fishery waste? A multi-scale analysis using seabird GPS-tracking, hydro-acoustic surveys of pelagic fish and vessel monitoring systems (pages 659–670)

      Emilie Tew Kai, Simon Benhamou, Carl D. van der Lingen, Janet C. Coetzee, Lorien Pichegru, Peter G. Ryan and David Grémillet

      Article first published online: 7 MAY 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12086

      Our study demonstrates that seabirds such as Cape gannets depend on fishery waste when their natural prey is scarce, but revert to feeding on natural resources whenever available, showing highly flexible foraging behaviour. These results have important implications in the context of the anticipated legislation banning at-sea disposal of fishery waste in different regions, including European seas, highlighting the necessity to concomitantly promote sustainable fishing allowing the restoration of pelagic fish stocks.

    3. How many seabirds do we need to track to define home-range area? (pages 671–679)

      Louise M. Soanes, John P. Y. Arnould, Stephen G. Dodd, Michael D. Sumner and Jonathan A. Green

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12069

      Seabird and marine mammal tracking studies are increasingly being used to aid the designation of marine conservation zones and to predict important foraging areas. We suggest that many studies may be underestimating the size of these foraging areas and that better estimates could be made by considering both the duration and number of data logger deployments. Researchers intending to draw conclusions from tracking data should conduct a similar analysis of their data as used in this study to determine the reliability of their home-range area predictions.

    4. Evaluating eutrophication management scenarios in the Baltic Sea using species distribution modelling (pages 680–690)

      Ulf Bergström, Göran Sundblad, Anna-Leena Downie, Martin Snickars, Christoffer Boström and Mats Lindegarth

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12083

      We show how ecological effects of environmental policies can be evaluated in an explicit spatial context using species distribution modelling. The model-specific responses to changes in eutrophication status emphasize the importance of using ensemble modelling for exploring how species distributions may respond to alternative management regimes. A pronounced difference in response between species suggests that eutrophication mitigation will have consequences for ecosystem functioning, and thus ecosystem goods and services, by inducing changes in the simple food webs of the Baltic Sea. These model predictions form a basis for spatially explicit cost-benefit estimates under different scenarios, providing valuable information for both decision-makers and the wider society.

    5. Identifying effective water-management strategies in variable climates using population dynamics models (pages 691–701)

      Jian D. L. Yen, Nick R. Bond, Will Shenton, Daniel A. Spring and Ralph Mac Nally

      Article first published online: 21 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12074

      Our scenario-based approach was able to assess the population-level effects of multiple concurrent stressors and represents an effective framework for identifying management strategies that are robust to uncertainty in future environments.

  6. Disease ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Taming wildlife disease: bridging the gap between science and management (pages 702–712)

      Maxwell B. Joseph, Joseph R. Mihaljevic, Ana Lisette Arellano, Jordan G. Kueneman, Daniel L. Preston, Paul C. Cross and Pieter T. J. Johnson

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12084

      Theory-based disease management can meet the needs of both academics and managers by testing disease ecology theory and improving disease interventions. Theoretical concepts that have received limited attention to date in wildlife disease management could provide a basis for improving management and advancing disease ecology in the future.

    2. Do global models predicting environmental suitability for the amphibian fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, have local value to conservation managers? (pages 713–720)

      Karen Riley, Oliver F. Berry and J. Dale Roberts

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12091

      Predicted and realized high environmental suitability for B. dendrobatidis is not correlated with frog decline in south-western Australia. Innate or acquired immunity, chytrid strain type and limited opportunities for chytrid growth may all explain absence of chytrid impacts. Occurrence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is not a current critical management issue for conservation managers in south-western Australia despite a known presence since 1985. Models predicting high environmental suitability for chytrid in Mediterranean climate zones should be interpreted cautiously in the absence of documentation of current, rather than historic, chytrid loads and a clear evaluation of any occurrence of chytrid on frog survival.

  7. Restoration

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Soil preparation methods promoting ectomycorrhizal colonization and American chestnut Castanea dentata establishment in coal mine restoration (pages 721–729)

      Jenise M. Bauman, Carolyn H. Keiffer, Shiv Hiremath and Brian C. McCarthy

      Article first published online: 8 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12070

      This study illustrates that the use of soil subsurface methods increased ectomycorrhizal (ECM) activity and seedling growth. Employing methods that encourage the root colonization by beneficial ECM and promote healthy seedling establishment may aid the long-term survival of chestnuts in restoration projects. This can be applied to other hardwood seedlings used in reforestation in soils compacted after anthropogenic disturbances.

    2. A systems approach to restoring degraded drylands (pages 730–739)

      Jeremy J. James, Roger L. Sheley, Todd Erickson, Kim S. Rollins, Michael H. Taylor and Kingsley W. Dixon

      Article first published online: 18 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12090

      Systems models for restoration do not replace conceptual models but complement and extend these modelling approaches by enhancing our ability to solve restoration problems and forecast outcomes under changing conditions. Such forecasting of future outcomes is necessary to monetize restoration benefits and cost and to maximize economic benefit of limited restoration dollars.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Seedling establishment in a dynamic sedimentary environment: a conceptual framework using mangroves (pages 740–747)

      Thorsten Balke, Edward L. Webb, Eva van den Elzen, Demis Galli, Peter M. J. Herman and Tjeerd J. Bouma

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12067

      Seedling survival in dynamic sedimentary environments is determined by the frequency and magnitude of sediment accretion or erosion events, with non-lethal events causing feedbacks to seedling stability. Managers attempting restoration of mangroves, salt marshes, dunes and riparian vegetation should recognize sediment dynamics as a main bottleneck to primary colonization. The temporal distribution of erosion and accretion events has to be evaluated against the ability of the seedlings to outgrow or adjust to disturbances. Our results suggest that selecting fast-growing pioneer species and measures to enhance seedling growth or temporary reduction in sediment dynamics at the restoration site can aid restoration success for vegetated biogeomorphic ecosystems.

  8. Control of invasives

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Rapid ontogenetic niche expansions in invasive Chinese tallow tree permit establishment in unfavourable but variable environments and can be exploited to streamline restoration (pages 748–756)

      Christopher A. Gabler and Evan Siemann

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12071

      Our results show Triadica exhibits rapid ontogenetic moisture niche expansions, which could decouple mature Triadica density and average reinvasion pressure. Therefore, density is an unreliable predictor of reinvasion but is commonly used to guide Triadica management, and cryptic opportunities exist for inexpensive and straightforward restorations. Reliable moisture niche-based estimates of Triadica's average reinvasion pressure are feasible and may improve restoration efficacy and efficiency by informing site selection and optimal management strategies.

    2. The ‘dirty dozen’: socio-economic factors amplify the invasion potential of 12 high-risk aquatic invasive species in Great Britain and Ireland (pages 757–766)

      Belinda Gallardo and David C. Aldridge

      Article first published online: 30 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12079

      The inclusion of socio-economic factors in species distribution models has the potential to improve predictions of areas under a highest risk of multiple invasions and to help disentangle the complex interplay between biological invasions and global environmental and socio-economic processes. Such understanding is pivotal to prioritize limited resources for the optimum prevention and control of biological invasions.

  9. Landscape ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. Barriers or corridors? The overlooked role of unpaved roads in endozoochorous seed dispersal (pages 767–774)

      Alberto Suárez-Esteban, Miguel Delibes and José M. Fedriani

      Article first published online: 11 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12080

      By promoting mammal-mediated seed dispersal, soft linear developments (SLD) may act as seed corridors. Given the extremely high density of SLD world-wide, SLD hold a significant overlooked role for management and plant conservation actions. Dispersers selecting SLD can promote roadside restoration, potentially saving financial resources. These feasible benefits must be weighed up against potential spread of alien or undesirable plant species, but we demonstrate the SLD represent a valuable management tool.

    2. Effects of silviculture on native tree species richness: interactions between management, landscape context and regional climate (pages 775–785)

      Emi Martín-Queller, Jeffrey M. Diez, Inés Ibáñez and Santiago Saura

      Article first published online: 5 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12064

      The effects of forest management on local species richness were shaped by coarse climate conditions and by the type and extent of other management practices in the surrounding landscapes. Therefore, to develop effective forestry management plans that optimize local diversity, we need to (i) apply regionally tailored practices with lower harvest intensities in areas of greater hydric stress; (ii) avoid the extensive application of a single silvicultural system over large areas and (iii) preserve a mosaic of species-rich forests that can act as sources of colonizers to enrich the regenerating stands nearby.

    3. Improving distance sampling: accounting for covariates and non-independency between sampled sites (pages 786–793)

      Cornelia S. Oedekoven, Stephen T. Buckland, Monique L. Mackenzie, Kristine O. Evans and Loren W. Burger Jr

      Article first published online: 8 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12065

      We develop and compare two methods for analysing data from large-scale distance sampling experiments with imbalanced repeat measures. By including a random site effect in the plot abundance model, we relax the assumption of independent sample counts which is generally made for distance sampling methods, and we allow inference to be drawn for the wider region that the sites represent.

    4. Managing uplands for biodiversity: Do agri-environment schemes deliver benefits for breeding lapwing Vanellus vanellus? (pages 794–804)

      Jennifer Smart, Mark Bolton, Fiona Hunter, Helen Quayle, Gavin Thomas and Richard D. Gregory

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12081

      Despite considerable investment and positive effects of agri-environment schemes on habitat quality, populations of lapwing in the UK uplands have declined because of inadequate productivity. For species with complex requirements, populations are only likely to increase when all of these requirements are provided. Appropriately targeted habitat management, delivered through agri-environment schemes, can play an important role in improving habitat quality and increasing landscape diversity. However, when populations are limited by something other than habitat quality, for example, predation, then habitat management alone is unlikely to recover populations. Increasing evidence suggests that predation impacts are also likely to be important for ground-nesting species such as lapwing. Predator management may therefore need to be integrated with habitat measures where predation is limiting breeding success and population recovery.

  10. Retraction notice

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's Perspective
    3. Human–wildlife interactions
    4. Ecosystem services
    5. Fire regimes for management
    6. Freshwater and marine management
    7. Disease ecology
    8. Restoration
    9. Control of invasives
    10. Landscape ecology
    11. Retraction notice
    1. You have free access to this content

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