Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 5

October 2013

Volume 50, Issue 5

Pages 1081–1288

  1. Fisheries management

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. Impact of increasing deployment of artificial floating objects on the spatial distribution of social fish species (pages 1081–1092)

      Grégory Sempo, Laurent Dagorn, Marianne Robert and Jean-Louis Deneubourg

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12140

      In terms of fisheries management, the total catch volume is directly linked to the total number of floating objects (FOBs) for non-social species, and any limit on the number of sets would then result in a limit on the total catch. For social species (e.g. tuna), however, increasing the number of FOBs does not necessarily lead to an increase in the total catch, which is a non-intuitive result. Indeed, our model shows that, for specific values of the parameters, deploying a greater number of FOBs in the water (all other parameters being constant) does not necessarily help fishermen to catch more tuna, but does increase the level of fishing effort and bycatch.

    2. Steelhead vulnerability to climate change in the Pacific Northwest (pages 1093–1104)

      Alisa A. Wade, Timothy J. Beechie, Erica Fleishman, Nathan J. Mantua, Huan Wu, John S. Kimball, David M. Stoms and Jack A. Stanford

      Article first published online: 31 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12137

      There are few areas where habitat protection alone is likely to be sufficient to conserve steelhead under the scenario of climate change considered here. Instead, our results suggest the need for coordinated, landscape-scale actions that both increase salmon resilience and ameliorate climate change impacts, such as restoring connectivity of floodplains and high-elevation habitats.

  2. Climate change

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. A scenario for impacts of water availability loss due to climate change on riverine fish extinction rates (pages 1105–1115)

      Pablo A. Tedesco, Thierry Oberdorff, Jean-François Cornu, Olivier Beauchard, Sébastien Brosse, Hans H. Dürr, Gaël Grenouillet, Fabien Leprieur, Clément Tisseuil, Rainer Zaiss and Bernard Hugueny

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12125

      Our results strongly contrast with previous alarming predictions of huge surface-dependent climate change–driven extinctions for riverine fishes and other taxonomic groups. Furthermore, based on well-documented fish extinctions from Central and North American drainages over the last century, we also show that recent extinction rates are, on average, 130 times greater than our projected extinction rates from climate change. This last result implies that current anthropogenic threats generate extinction rates in rivers far greater than the ones expected from future water availability loss. We thus argue that conservation actions should be preferentially focused on reducing the impacts of present-day anthropogenic drivers of riverine fish extinctions.

    2. Evaluating breeding and metamorph occupancy and vernal pool management effects for wood frogs using a hierarchical model (pages 1116–1123)

      Adam W. Green, Mevin B. Hooten, Evan H. Campbell Grant and Larissa L. Bailey

      Article first published online: 8 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12121

      We demonstrate that management actions targeting short-hydroperiod pools favourably influence both components of breeding success. However, continued monitoring is needed to determine whether managed pools remain suitable for wood frogs. With predicted changes in climate and a positive relationship between breeding occupancy and winter precipitation, a proactive focus on active management of vernal pools may provide a means to maintain wood frog populations in the future.

    3. FORUM: Sustaining ecosystem functions in a changing world: a call for an integrated approach (pages 1124–1130)

      Hiroshi Tomimatsu, Takehiro Sasaki, Hiroko Kurokawa, Jon R. Bridle, Colin Fontaine, Jun Kitano, Daniel B. Stouffer, Mark Vellend, T. Martijn Bezemer, Tadashi Fukami, Elizabeth A. Hadly, Marcel G.A. van der Heijden, Masakado Kawata, Sonia Kéfi, Nathan J.B. Kraft, Kevin S. McCann, Peter J. Mumby, Tohru Nakashizuka, Owen L. Petchey, Tamara N. Romanuk, Katharine N. Suding, Gaku Takimoto, Jotaro Urabe and Shigeo Yachi

      Article first published online: 25 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12116

      Management of human-impacted ecosystems can be guided most directly by understanding the response of ecosystem functions to controllable perturbations. In particular, we need to characterize the form of a wide range of perturbation–function relationships and to draw connections between those patterns and the underlying ecological processes. We anticipate that the integrated perspectives will also be helpful for managers to derive practical implications for management from academic literature.

  3. Ecosystem function and resilience

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. Assessing resilience and state-transition models with historical records of cheatgrass Bromus tectorum invasion in North American sagebrush-steppe (pages 1131–1141)

      Sumanta Bagchi, David D. Briske, Brandon T. Bestelmeyer and X. Ben Wu

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12128

      These results illustrate the complexities associated with threshold identification, and indicate that criteria describing the frequency, magnitude, directionality and temporal scale of community transitions may provide greater insight into resilience theory and its application for ecosystem management. These criteria are likely to vary across biogeographic regions that are susceptible to cheatgrass invasion, and necessitate more in-depth assessments of thresholds and alternative states, than currently available.

    2. Decomposer communities in human-impacted streams: species dominance rather than richness affects leaf decomposition (pages 1142–1151)

      Mikko Tolkkinen, Heikki Mykrä, Anna-Mari Markkola, Heidi Aisala, Kari-Matti Vuori, Jaakko Lumme, Anna Maria Pirttilä and Timo Muotka

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12138

      Our results suggest that leaf decomposition rates are insensitive to natural background variation, supporting the use of decomposition assays, preferably accompanied by molecular analysis of fungal assemblages, to assess stream ecosystem health. Instead of focusing solely on diversity, however, more emphasis should be placed at changes in dominance patterns, particularly if management aims are to improve stream ecosystem functioning.

    3. Streams are efficient corridors for plant species in forest metacommunities (pages 1152–1160)

      Emmanuelle Araujo Calçada, Déborah Closset-Kopp, Emilie Gallet-Moron, Jonathan Lenoir, Mathilde Rêve, Martin Hermy and Guillaume Decocq

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12132

      This study demonstrates that streams can act as efficient corridors for plant species across agricultural landscapes and contribute to the dynamics of forest metacommunities. From a management perspective, preserving the longitudinal integrity of streams is likely to increase the connectivity within and between forest metacommunities and can assist dispersal-limited species to be resilient to projected climate warming by increasing their migration speed. Restoring not only wooded elements but watercourse networks is thus a suitable strategy to manage landscapes efficiently for the forest flora conservation.

  4. Urban ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      FORUM: Sharing or sparing? How should we grow the world's cities? (pages 1161–1168)

      Brenda B. Lin and Richard A. Fuller

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12118

      The spatial pattern of urban development will affect biodiversity conservation within and beyond a city's borders. We chart the early progress of empirical work on the land-sparing debate in an urban context and suggest that to yield development patterns that minimize overall ecological impact, urban planners must work at the scale of at least the entire city rather than on a case-by-case basis.

    2. FORUM: Challenges and future directions in urban afforestation (pages 1169–1177)

      Emily E. Oldfield, Robert J. Warren, Alexander J. Felson and Mark A. Bradford

      Article first published online: 17 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12124

      Urban afforestation approaches – from natural colonization to large-scale plantings – represent a trade-off in cost vs. efficacy for establishing native forests. A major cost-saving strategy would be to determine whether exotics and natives can co-exist and provide the intended ecosystem services.

  5. Forestry and fire management

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. Successional specialization in a reptile community cautions against widespread planned burning and complete fire suppression (pages 1178–1186)

      Annabel L. Smith, C. Michael Bull and Don A. Driscoll

      Article first published online: 20 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12119

      We found only limited support for a generalizable, trait-based model of succession in reptiles. However, our study revealed that the majority of common reptile species in our study region specialize on a post-fire successional stage and may therefore become threatened if homogeneous fire regimes predominate. Our study highlights the importance of interpreting results from time- or sample-limited fire studies of reptiles with the knowledge that many ecological responses may not have been detected. In such cases, an adaptive or precautionary approach to fire management may be necessary.

    2. Floristic diversity in fire-sensitive eucalypt woodlands shows a ‘U’-shaped relationship with time since fire (pages 1187–1196)

      Carl R. Gosper, Colin J. Yates and Suzanne M. Prober

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12120

      Recurrent fire is not required to maintain diversity in these fire-sensitive woodlands as diversity reached a maximum in mature vegetation. Fire intervals of <c. 200 years are likely to have adverse consequences on diversity, which is of conservation concern given apparently high recent rates of occurrence of fire. Changes in diversity were not apparent when times since fire were truncated to those available from remote sensing, illustrating that space-for-time studies defined solely by remote sensing may obscure equivalent ‘U’-shaped diversity–time since fire relationships.

    3. REVIEW: Charcoal function and management in boreal ecosystems (pages 1197–1206)

      Stephen Hart and Nancy Luckai

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12136

      Charcoal contributes to boreal soil function, ecosystem productivity, nutrient retention and carbon cycling. In the absence of fire, charcoal loses many active properties, contributing to declining productivity with increasing time since fire. Incorporation of charcoal into ecosystem management using prescribed burns may contribute to sustainable management of boreal forests and maintaining global carbon cycles.

  6. Disease control

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. The Trojan hives: pollinator pathogens, imported and distributed in bumblebee colonies (pages 1207–1215)

      Peter Graystock, Kathryn Yates, Sophie E. F. Evison, Ben Darvill, Dave Goulson and William O. H. Hughes

      Article first published online: 18 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12134

      The results demonstrate that commercially produced bumblebee colonies carry multiple, infectious parasites that pose a significant risk to other native and managed pollinators. More effective disease detection and management strategies are urgently needed to reduce the pathogen spillover threat from commercially produced bumblebees.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Modelling the spatial spread of a homing endonuclease gene in a mosquito population (pages 1216–1225)

      Ace North, Austin Burt and H. Charles J. Godfray

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12133

      The model presented asks for the first time how the spatial structure of mosquito populations will influence the effectiveness of a technology that is being rapidly developed for vector control. If homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) are to be used in this way, we have qualified the importance of accounting for landscape characteristics in both the execution and the expectation of their application. The next stage is to use the model to study the spread of HEGs through real landscapes where releases may take place, something that will be facilitated by the results of the present study.

    3. Can restoration of afforested peatland regulate pests and disease? (pages 1226–1233)

      Lucy Gilbert

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12141

      Felling conifer forest to restore peatlands could produce a dramatic decline in tick abundance throughout the restoration process, with implications for disease risk. Therefore, a further ecosystem service of peatlands in addition to climate, biodiversity and water regulation is regulating pests and disease. Deer management and procedures that speed up the restoration process are likely to enhance the effect during the intermediate stages.

  7. Restoration

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. You have free access to this content
      EDITOR'S CHOICE: Confronting contingency in restoration: management and site history determine outcomes of assembling prairies, but site characteristics and landscape context have little effect (pages 1234–1243)

      Emily Grman, Tyler Bassett and Lars A. Brudvig

      Article first published online: 30 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12135

      This is, to our knowledge, the first quantitative comparison of how four major classes of drivers determine the outcome of restoration. Historical legacies and management decisions, but generally not landscape context or local site conditions, shaped plant communities at restored sites. These findings represent an important step towards developing a more predictive framework for understanding contingency in restoration outcomes.

    2. Fast-growing pioneer tree stands as a rapid and effective strategy for bracken elimination in the Neotropics (pages 1257–1265)

      David Douterlungne, Evert Thomas and Samuel I. Levy-Tacher

      Article first published online: 28 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12077

      Mayan subsistence farmers traditionally use balsa to out-compete invasive weeds, including bracken fern. Here, we highlight the usefulness of this method for quick and effective bracken control in southern Mexico. This approach, in combination with balsa's short rotation cycle, creates opportunities to rapidly convert bracken land into forest stands with commercial potential, thus providing local income and increasing the likelihood of adoption by rural people. We encourage further research to test the potential of balsa and other fast-growing pioneer trees species for controlling bracken and similar weeds.

    3. Soil aggregate stability increase is strongly related to fungal community succession along an abandoned agricultural field chronosequence in the Bolivian Altiplano (pages 1266–1273)

      Jessica Duchicela, Tarah S. Sullivan, Eliana Bontti and James D. Bever

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12130

      Soil aggregate stability increased by 50% over the 20 years following disturbance. This recovery was associated with shifts in soil fungal community composition, as is consistent with fungal mediation of this recovery. Land management strategies focusing on restoration of the soil fungal community may enhance soil aggregate stability, a key aspect for soil conservation, restoration, sustainability of agroecosystems and erosion prevention.

  8. Agro-ecology

    1. Top of page
    2. Fisheries management
    3. Climate change
    4. Ecosystem function and resilience
    5. Urban ecology
    6. Forestry and fire management
    7. Disease control
    8. Restoration
    9. Agro-ecology
    1. FORUM: Landscape-scale conservation: collaborative agri-environment schemes could benefit both biodiversity and ecosystem services, but will farmers be willing to participate? (pages 1274–1280)

      Ailsa J. McKenzie, Steven B. Emery, Jeremy R. Franks and Mark J. Whittingham

      Article first published online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12122

      Well-designed landscape-scale schemes are likely to be more beneficial than farm-scale schemes for a small but significant number of key farmland species and ES, such as bats, mammals and some important pollinators, while unlikely to harm species operating at smaller scales. These schemes can be expected to attract widespread participation from landowners. Thus, policymakers may be heartened that collaborative AES are a potential multifaceted solution to environmental management on farmland.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Aphid performance and population development on their host plants is affected by weed–crop interactions (pages 1281–1288)

      Iris Dahlin and Velemir Ninkovic

      Article first published online: 26 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12115

      The results support the potential of associated resistance, mediated by neighbouring plants, in minimizing herbivore damage of focal plants and highlighted the mechanism by which herbivores might be affected. Since chemical exchange between plant neighbours can potentially occur in any plant community, increased understanding could be valuable for existing and new agroecosystems, invasion biology and sustainable crop production. To get a balance between herbicide and insecticide control, agricultural production systems need to focus on the thresholds of weed and insect tolerance, taking the associated resistance of biodiversity (here weeds) into account. Agricultural biodiversity may provide many long-term benefits over monoculture, from reducing pesticide pollution to preventing insecticide resistance. Our study is an important step forward in general understanding of the effects of vegetational diversity on herbivore population dynamics.

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