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Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 50 Issue 6

December 2013

Volume 50, Issue 6

Pages 1289–1478

  1. Practitioner's perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
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      Protected areas for conservation and poverty alleviation: experiences from Madagascar (pages 1289–1294)

      Charlie J. Gardner, Martin E. Nicoll, Tsibara Mbohoahy, Kirsten L. L. Oleson, Anitry N. Ratsifandrihamanana, Joelisoa Ratsirarson, Lily-Arison René de Roland, Malika Virah-Sawmy, Bienvenue Zafindrasilivonona and Zoe G. Davies

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12164

  2. Sustainable forest management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
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      FORUM: Searching for biodiversity gains through woodfuel and forest management (pages 1295–1300)

      Robert J. Fuller

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12152

      Woodfuel management is unlikely to deliver benefits for most shade-intolerant species unless it creates substantial areas of young-growth with low deer impacts. However, more research is needed on thinning as a potential conservation tool. Changing climate and tree diseases are creating an uncertain future for forest management. It is timely for ecologists to work with forest managers to identify how integrated forestry and deer management can deliver positive and balanced biodiversity outcomes.

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      Conserving tropical biodiversity via strategic spatiotemporal harvest planning (pages 1301–1310)

      Benjamin S. Ramage, Elaina C. Marshalek, Justin Kitzes and Matthew D. Potts

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12149

      Our simulations suggest that reducing the size of contiguous harvest units, even while total harvest area remains constant, may reduce extinction rates in tropical production forests (assuming that road-related threats can be effectively managed). Our findings have important implications for tropical conservation efforts and also provide general insight into the compositional effects of disturbances with different spatiotemporal characteristics.

  3. Conservation and climate change

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
    1. You have free access to this content
      Managing climate change adaptation in forests: a case study from the U.S. Southwest (pages 1311–1320)

      Lucy P. Kerhoulas, Thomas E. Kolb, Matthew D. Hurteau and George W. Koch

      Version of Record online: 7 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12139

      Our findings indicate that more aggressive thinning treatments used for forest restoration stimulate growth throughout large residual trees from coarse roots to branches and also improve drought resistance, providing a greater resilience to future climate-related stress. These responses to treatment are more pronounced in large trees than small trees. Forest thinning is therefore recommended in systems that are likely to experience increased temperature and decreased precipitation as a result of climate change.

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      REVIEW: Refuges for fauna in fire-prone landscapes: their ecological function and importance (pages 1321–1329)

      Natasha M. Robinson, Steve W.J. Leonard, Euan G. Ritchie, Michelle Bassett, Evelyn K. Chia, Sebastian Buckingham, Heloise Gibb, Andrew F. Bennett and Michael F. Clarke

      Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12153

      Refuges are potentially of great importance in buffering the effects of wildfire on fauna. There is an urgent need for empirical data from a range of ecosystems to better understand what constitutes a refuge for different taxa, the spatial and temporal dynamics of species' use of refuges and the attributes that most influence their value to fauna. Complementary research is also required to evaluate threats to naturally occurring refuges and the potential for management actions to protect, create and enhance refuges. Knowledge of the spatial arrangement of refuges that enhance the persistence of fire-sensitive species will aid in making decisions concerning land and fire management in conservation reserves and large natural areas. Global change in the magnitude and extent of fire regimes means that refuges are likely to be increasingly important for the conservation of biodiversity in fire-prone environments.

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      EDITOR'S CHOICE: Saving the hihi under climate change: a case for assisted colonization (pages 1330–1340)

      Aliénor L. M. Chauvenet, John G. Ewen, Doug Armstrong and Nathalie Pettorelli

      Version of Record online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12150

      Assisted colonization is increasingly being considered as an adaptation tool for species threatened by climate change. Justifying the use of this extreme conservation action, however, requires robust evidence that it is necessary and clear guidance on where to translocate individuals of threatened populations. We show how both requirements can be met using habitat suitability modelling if knowledge of the relationship between climate, climate change and the species' population dynamics is systematically used to guide the modelling process.

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      Assessing the CO2 capture potential of seagrass restoration projects (pages 1341–1349)

      Carlos M. Duarte, Tomás Sintes and Núria Marbà

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12155

      Seagrass restoration programmes are economically viable strategies to mitigate climate change through carbon sequestration, particularly in subtropical and tropical island states where land-based options have a limited scope.

  4. Spatial ecology and habitat use

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
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      Home range and resource selection by animals constrained by linear habitat features: an example of Blakiston's fish owl (pages 1350–1357)

      Jonathan C. Slaght, Jon S. Horne, Sergei G. Surmach and R.J. Gutiérrez

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12143

      The synoptic model solves a long-standing problem in home range and resource selection studies because it provides an objective way to estimate the space use of a species whose habitat is constrained by linear features in its environment. Improvements in the accuracy of such estimations can lead to identification of important resources across landscapes, the development of more rigorous site-specific or landscape-scale management plans, and to scientifically defensible conservation or threat mitigation measures.

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      Hard boundaries influence African wild dogs' diet and prey selection (pages 1358–1366)

      Harriet T. Davies-Mostert, Michael G. L. Mills and David W. Macdonald

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12129

      By enabling coursing predators to capture prey that would otherwise have escaped, fences may reduce the compensatory nature of predation, causing shifts in predator–prey dynamics that could influence the ability of small reserves to support such predators. The establishment of larger conservation areas to reduce perimeter-to-area ratios should be encouraged to limit the undesired effects of fences on predator–prey dynamics.

  5. Landscape management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
    1. You have free access to this content
      The impact of 36 years of grazing management on vegetation dynamics in dune slacks (pages 1367–1376)

      Jonathan Millett and Sally Edmondson

      Version of Record online: 21 JUN 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12113

      At the levels of grazing present in this study (2·5 sheep ha−1 year−1), sheep had similar impacts on dune slack plant communities to rabbits, making them suitable for replacing or augmenting rabbit grazing for conservation management. At the intensity present in this study, long-term grazing can help to maintain a species-rich dune slack community but is not sufficient for successful restoration.

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      Understanding the effects of a new grazing policy: the impact of seasonal grazing on shrub demography in the Inner Mongolian steppe (pages 1377–1386)

      Shou-Li Li, Fei-Hai Yu, Marinus J. A. Werger, Ming Dong, Satu Ramula and Pieter A. Zuidema

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12159

      Our study showed that the relatively large changes in vital rates induced by seasonal grazing did not affect population growth rates. Caragana intermedia populations can be sustained under the seasonal grazing regime probably because the grazing intensity is moderate and because this species has a high probability of adult survival under grazing. Plant species with similar life-history traits to C. intermedia are likely to offer good opportunities for sustainable seasonal grazing regimes in arid and semi-arid inland ecosystems.

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      New methods of crop production and farmland birds: effects of plastic mulches on species richness and abundance (pages 1387–1396)

      Piotr Skórka, Magdalena Lenda, Dawid Moroń and Piotr Tryjanowski

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12148

      Our results provide the first evidence that the use of foil for mulching has negative effects on farmland bird populations, probably through the trophic cascade and habitat disturbance. Therefore, foil mulches must be considered as another factor contributing to the decline of farmland biodiversity. We suggest limiting the use of this method of vegetable production at the farm level. Decreasing the field size and converting some arable fields into grassland patches are proposed as mitigation measures in landscapes with high foil cover.

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      Hen harriers on a Scottish grouse moor: multiple factors predict breeding density and productivity (pages 1397–1405)

      David Baines and Michael Richardson

      Version of Record online: 30 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12154

      We consider this study to be the first that quantifies how control of generalist predators as part of grouse moor management can benefit harrier productivity. This adds to the importance of finding ways to ensure that grouse moors are managed for harriers, but are still economically viable. If techniques can be devised and put in place to reduce the impact of harriers on grouse, then the control of generalist predators may be viewed as a more acceptable component of conservation management for ground-nesting birds.

  6. Control of pests and invasive species

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
    1. You have free access to this content
      Using long-term monitoring of red fox populations to assess changes in rodent control practices (pages 1406–1414)

      Marion Jacquot, Michaël Coeurdassier, Geoffroy Couval, Régis Renaude, David Pleydell, Denis Truchetet, Francis Raoul and Patrick Giraudoux

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12151

      We have established, for the first time on a regional scale, the negative impact of a rodenticide on fox populations. We have shown that a shift to preventive treatments with reduced anticoagulant rodenticide use is less harmful to fox populations. However, to approach a zero impact, treatments should be reduced further by limitation of bait quantities authorized per hectare and per commune and using alternative methods to chemical control. Long-term monitoring of wildlife populations using index methods can provide valuable information about the adverse effects of pesticides; therefore, we recommend their inclusion in the assessment of pest management practices.

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      Rapid assessment of rat eradication after aerial baiting (pages 1415–1421)

      Araceli Samaniego-Herrera, Dean P. Anderson, John P. Parkes and Alfonso Aguirre-Muñoz

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12147

      Rapid assessment of success after rodent eradication efforts on islands results in financial savings by potentially reducing the duration of the projects. Improvements in biosecurity guidelines might also accrue as delays in detecting rats after an operation may confound their identification as offspring of survivors or re-invaders. Advanced techniques and predictive modelling will increase confidence among partners and donors and allow more efficient achievement of regional programmes.

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      Spread of invasive ragweed: climate change, management and how to reduce allergy costs (pages 1422–1430)

      Robert Richter, Uwe E. Berger, Stefan Dullinger, Franz Essl, Michael Leitner, Matthew Smith and Gero Vogl

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12156

      Our study illustrates that management of invasive alien species has an economic benefit beside natural conservation. We provide guidance for the future management using the example of ragweed in Austria and Bavaria and show that although the species has expanded its range and abundance substantially in recent years, a well-designed and ambitious management programme still may yield substantial benefits. This is true for current climatic conditions as well as for future climate change scenarios, albeit management costs increase with a warming climate. However, possible gains are increasing in parallel. Given the scale of impacts on human health, and the substantial gains accrued from management, our results suggest that it is wise to halt further spread of ragweed.

  7. Modelling for management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
    1. You have free access to this content
      Evaluating a multispecies adaptive management framework: must uncertainty impede effective decision-making? (pages 1431–1440)

      David R. Smith, Conor P. McGowan, Jonathan P. Daily, James D. Nichols, John A. Sweka and James E. Lyons

      Version of Record online: 27 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12145

      The combination of management strategy evaluation with state-dependent strategies from stochastic dynamic programming was an informative approach to evaluate adaptive management performance and value of learning. Although natural resource decisions are characterized by uncertainty, not all uncertainty will cause decisions to be altered substantially, as we found in this case. It is important to incorporate uncertainty into the decision framing and evaluate the effect of reducing that uncertainty on achieving the desired outcomes.

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      Predicting soil properties from floristic composition in western Amazonian rain forests: performance of k-nearest neighbour estimation and weighted averaging calibration (pages 1441–1449)

      Lassi Suominen, Kalle Ruokolainen, Hanna Tuomisto, Nelly Llerena and Mark. A. Higgins

      Version of Record online: 19 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12131

      Our results show that Melastomataceae can be used as an indicator group that facilitates the field estimation of soil cation concentration and hence the assessment and mapping of soil variation over large areas. This provides important background information for all types of land-use planning, including systematic conservation planning that aims at representativeness of conservation area networks.

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      Opportunistic citizen science data of animal species produce reliable estimates of distribution trends if analysed with occupancy models (pages 1450–1458)

      Arco J. van Strien, Chris A.M. van Swaay and Tim Termaat

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12158

      Opportunistic data can be used for monitoring purposes if occupancy models are used for analysis. Occupancy models are able to control for the common biases encountered with opportunistic data, enabling species trends to be monitored for species groups and regions where it is not feasible to collect standardized data on a large scale. Opportunistic data may thus become an important source of information to track distribution trends in many groups of species.

  8. Pollution and environmental toxins

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Sustainable forest management
    4. Conservation and climate change
    5. Spatial ecology and habitat use
    6. Landscape management
    7. Control of pests and invasive species
    8. Modelling for management
    9. Pollution and environmental toxins
    1. You have free access to this content
      Multiple stressors in periphyton – comparison of observed and predicted tolerance responses to high ionic loads and herbicide exposure (pages 1459–1468)

      Stefanie Rotter, Hermann Heilmeier, Rolf Altenburger and Mechthild Schmitt-Jansen

      Version of Record online: 9 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12146

      Multiple stressors might explain the failure to achieve good ecological status for many European water bodies within the context of the EU-Water Framework Directive (WFD). We propose PICT as a diagnostic tool for investigative monitoring to clarify stressor conditions by testing the tolerances of local communities to preselected site-specific compounds.

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      Modelling interactions of toxicants and density dependence in wildlife populations (pages 1469–1478)

      Aafke M. Schipper, Harrie W. M. Hendriks, Matthew J. Kauffman, A. Jan Hendriks and Mark A. J. Huijbregts

      Version of Record online: 8 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12142

      Our modelling results showed that particular life stages of a density-limited population may be relatively insensitive to toxicant impacts until a critical threshold is crossed. In our study population, toxicant-induced changes were observed in the equilibrium number of nonbreeding rather than breeding birds, suggesting that monitoring efforts including both life stages are needed to timely detect population declines. Further, by combining quantitative exposure–response relationships with a wildlife demographic model, we provided a method to quantify critical toxicant thresholds for wildlife population persistence.

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