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Journal of Applied Ecology

Cover image for Vol. 51 Issue 1

February 2014

Volume 51, Issue 1

Pages 1–279

  1. Practitioner's perspective

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Research into action: grey partridge conservation as a case study (pages 1–5)

      Nicolas W. Sotherton, Nicholas J. Aebischer and Julie A. Ewald

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12162

  2. Managing human impacts on wildlife

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Mountain hares Lepus timidus and tourism: stress events and reactions (pages 6–12)

      Maik Rehnus, Martin Wehrle and Rupert Palme

      Version of Record online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12174

      To bring down the frequency of stress threats for mountain hares, we recommend that managers keep forests inhabited by mountain hares free of tourism infrastructure and retain undisturbed forest patches within skiing areas. Other species such as black grouse Tetrao tetrix and/or capercaillie Tetrao urogallus are also likely to benefit from such management activities because they share similar habitat requirements with mountain hares.

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      An experiment to test key hypotheses of the drivers of reptile distribution in subalpine ski resorts (pages 13–22)

      Chloe F. Sato, Jeff T. Wood, Mellesa Schroder, Ken Green, William S. Osborne, Damian R. Michael and David B. Lindenmayer

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12168

      We suggest that the retention of structural complexity on ski runs (e.g. through the cessation of mowing during peak reptile activity periods) and/or revegetation with native plant communities will concurrently provide refuge from predators and buffer against extreme temperatures, making ski runs more hospitable to reptiles. Based on our findings, we emphasize that effective management strategies targeting subalpine biodiversity conservation require an understanding of the drivers that determine species distributions in these landscapes.

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      The cumulative effect on sound levels from multiple underwater anthropogenic sound sources in shallow coastal waters (pages 23–30)

      Matthew K. Pine, Andrew G. Jeffs and Craig A. Radford

      Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12196

      The results show that geometric models used by some regulatory bodies may be underestimating the spatial extent to which the anthropogenic underwater sound may be propagating and creating potential ecological impacts. Based on field measurements, we have presented an alternative model which should assist regulatory agencies to better estimate and manage ecological impacts from anthropogenic underwater sound.

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      Modelling flight heights of marine birds to more accurately assess collision risk with offshore wind turbines (pages 31–41)

      Alison Johnston, Aonghais S. C. P. Cook, Lucy J. Wright, Elizabeth M. Humphreys and Niall H. K. Burton

      Version of Record online: 23 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12191

      The methods presented here for modelling continuous flight height distributions provide measures of uncertainty and enable comparison of collision risk between different turbine designs. This approach will improve the accuracy of impact assessments and provide estimates of uncertainty, allowing better evidence to inform decision-making.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Corrigendum

      Vol. 51, Issue 4, 1126–1130, Version of Record online: 6 MAY 2014

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      Living in risky landscapes: delineating management units in multithreat environments for effective species conservation (pages 42–52)

      Pedro P. Olea and Patricia Mateo-Tomás

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12176

      Our results show wide spatial variation for species’ threats and suggest incorporation of this heterogeneity into conservation schemes. We demonstrate how multivariate statistics, coupled with uncertainty analysis, can be employed in a systematic and repeatable way to deal with the heterogeneous landscapes of risk that species face across their ranges. Our approach allows researchers and managers to delineate management units according to similarity in species’ threats for any targeted organization level (e.g. individuals, territories, populations). The results can be visualized in Euclidean and geographical spaces for better interpretation, allowing managers to design more effective conservation actions.

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      Biological legacies buffer local species extinction after logging (pages 53–62)

      Jörgen Rudolphi, Mari T. Jönsson and Lena Gustafsson

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12187

      Careful spatial planning of retention structures is required to fully embrace the habitats of logging-sensitive species. Bryophytes and lichens persisted to a higher degree in retention patches compared to solitary trees or in the clearcut area. Retaining groups of trees in logged areas will help to sustain populations of species over the clearcut phase. When possible, old logs should be moved into retention patches to provide a more beneficial environment for dead wood-dependent species. Our study also highlights the need for more before–after control-impact studies of retention forestry to explore factors influencing the survival of species after logging.

  3. Evidence-based management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
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      Improving the application of long-term ecology in conservation and land management (pages 63–70)

      Althea L. Davies, Sergio Colombo and Nick Hanley

      Version of Record online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12163

      Placing more emphasis on site-based approaches can help translate this potential into practice by demonstrating the practical benefits of using LTE. By working with managers to address site-based issues, palaeoecology can provide additional insights into ecosystem dynamics and critical thresholds. Using LTE can also improve conservation effectiveness by ensuring that both rapid and lagged responses are anticipated and indicating the range of variability against which management responses can be evaluated.

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      REVIEW: Identifying links between vital rates and environment: a toolbox for the applied ecologist (pages 71–81)

      Morten Frederiksen, Jean-Dominique Lebreton, Roger Pradel, Rémi Choquet and Olivier Gimenez

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12172

      Careful demographic analysis and modelling has provided solutions for many real-world problems in population management, as well as assisting the development of general principles. The tools currently available are flexible and powerful, and the main limitations to their more general use are data availability and training.

  4. Invasive species and pest management

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Growth-enhanced coho salmon invading other salmon species populations: effects on early survival and growth (pages 82–89)

      L. Fredrik Sundström, Wendy E. Vandersteen, Mare Lõhmus and Robert H. Devlin

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12185

      Our results show that the ecological impact of fish genetically modified (GM) for rapid growth on closely related fish species may not be high in stream environments, unless these fish are first reared under culture conditions where they are able to realize their genetic growth potential. As such, first generation escapes of GM fish into the natural environment should be a main concern in the short term, whereas later generations, which are more similar to naturally occurring genotypes, are expected to have significantly weaker effects but which could persist for longer periods.

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      Effects of biological control on long-term population dynamics: identifying unexpected outcomes (pages 90–101)

      James R. Reilly and Bret D. Elderd

      Version of Record online: 9 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12181

      Perturbations to host–pathogen systems may have unexpected results, driving and maintaining populations at multiple levels including those far from desired management goals. It is often assumed that any control strategy that decreases pest populations in the short term is beneficial, but our results show that undesirable outcomes may often occur. The mechanisms we describe apply to many systems that undergo population cycles or outbreaks regulated by density-dependent processes, and in which disease or pesticide application is used for pest control. We suggest that successful management strategies should closely monitor population responses immediately following the control application to ensure that pest populations are not being maintained at artificially high levels compared with historic data.

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      Bti sprays do not adversely affect non-target aquatic invertebrates in French Atlantic coastal wetlands (pages 102–113)

      Laurent Lagadic, Marc Roucaute and Thierry Caquet

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12165

      Reduced application rate and targeted spraying of VectoBac® WG in mosquito breeding sites minimize potential environmental impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti). Even so, surveillance of its possible primary side effects is needed, which requires comparable control and treated areas. Indeed, systematic temporal trends and subtle differences in the range of variation of abiotic factors result in discrepancies between control and treated area in terms of invertebrate abundance, which could be wrongly attributed to VectoBac®. Management decisions and mitigation measures may therefore benefit from (i) extending surveillance to a time frame that allows for coverage of the immense temporal variation in taxa abundance and diversity and (ii) the inclusion of environmental variables in the monitoring of non-target animal communities potentially exposed to Bti.

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      Climate and exotic pasture area in landscape determines invasion of forest fragments by two invasive grasses (pages 114–123)

      Sarah Butler, Clive McAlpine, Rod Fensham and Alan House

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12160

      This study highlights several key issues that need to be considered when prioritizing management of invasive species in fragmented landscapes. First, the propagule supply in the landscape and climate gradients are key factors influencing the spread of exotic grasses into forest fragments. Second, managing canopy cover is critical to enhancing C. ciliaris invasion resistance, but not for P. maximum. We conclude that a multi-scale approach provides the conceptual and applied basis for an improved understanding and management of plant invasions in fragmented landscapes.

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      Two co-occurring invasive woody shrubs alter soil properties and promote subdominant invasive species (pages 124–133)

      Sara E. Kuebbing, Aimée T. Classen and Daniel Simberloff

      Version of Record online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12161

      Our study highlights the importance of explicitly studying the impacts of co-occurring invasive plant species singly and together. Though Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense have similar effects on ecosystem structure and function when growing alone, our data show that two functionally similar invaders can have non-additive impacts on ecosystems. These results suggest that sites with both species should be prioritized for invasive plant management over sites containing only one of these species. Furthermore, this study provides a valuable template for future studies exploring how and when invasion by co-occurring species alters above- and below-ground function in ecosystems with different traits.

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      Effects of plant phylogenetic diversity on herbivory depend on herbivore specialization (pages 134–141)

      Bastien Castagneyrol, Hervé Jactel, Corinne Vacher, Eckehard G. Brockerhoff and Julia Koricheva

      Version of Record online: 29 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12175

      Our study demonstrates that the establishment of mixed forests per se is not sufficient to convey associational resistance to herbivores if the identity of tree species associated in mixtures is not taken into account. As a general rule, mixing phylogenetically more distinct tree species, such as mixtures of conifers and broadleaved trees, results in more effective reduction in herbivore damage.

  5. Agriculture and biodiversity

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
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      National patterns of functional diversity and redundancy in predatory ground beetles and bees associated with key UK arable crops (pages 142–151)

      Ben A. Woodcock, Collin Harrower, John Redhead, Mike Edwards, Adam J. Vanbergen, Matthew S. Heard, David B. Roy and Richard F. Pywell

      Version of Record online: 21 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12171

      Increasingly, evidence suggests that functionally diverse assemblages of ground beetles and bees may be a key element to strategies that aim to support pollination and natural pest control in crops. If deficits in both functional diversity and redundancy in areas of high crop production are to be reversed, then targeted implementation of agri-environment schemes that establish semi-natural habitat may provide a policy mechanism for supporting these ecosystem services.

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      Ecologically sustainable fertility management for the maintenance of species-rich hay meadows: a 12-year fertilizer and lime experiment (pages 152–161)

      Francis W. Kirkham, Jerry R. B. Tallowin, Robert M. Dunn, Anne Bhogal, Brian J. Chambers and Richard D. Bardgett

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12169

      Relatively modest fertility inputs can reduce the ecological value of meadows with no recent history of such inputs, whereas moderate inputs of fertilizer and lime will be ecologically sustainable in meadows adapted to a long history of application. Decisions on sustainable levels of fertilizer use to maintain or enhance botanical diversity of grassland should be based on knowledge of soil physical and chemical status and past fertility management. Inorganic fertilizers are no more damaging than farmyard manure when applied at equivalent amounts of N, P and K.

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      Shade-grown cacao supports a self-sustaining population of two-toed but not three-toed sloths (pages 162–170)

      M. Zachariah Peery and Jonathan N. Pauli

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12182

      Our results suggest that shade-grown crops embedded within an agro-ecosystem can support viable populations of some specialized tropical animals; other species, however, may require immigration from surrounding forests to maintain stable populations. More broadly, the value of human-modified landscapes for biodiversity may be overestimated when some species are dependent on immigration from intact habitats.

  6. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
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      EDITOR'S CHOICE: Stepping stones are crucial for species' long-distance dispersal and range expansion through habitat networks (pages 171–182)

      Santiago Saura, Örjan Bodin and Marie-Josée Fortin

      Version of Record online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12179

      Previous static connectivity models seriously underestimate the importance of stepping-stone patches in sustaining rare but crucial dispersal events. We provide a conceptually broader model that shows that stepping stones (i) must be of sufficient size to be of conservation value, (ii) are particularly crucial for the spread of species (either native or invasive) or genotypes over long distances and (iii) can effectively reduce the isolation of the largest habitat blocks in reserves, therefore largely contributing to species persistence across wide spatial and temporal scales.

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      Connectivity between flyway populations of waterbirds: assessment of rates of exchange, their causes and consequences (pages 183–193)

      Jesper Madsen, Rune S. Tjørnløv, Morten Frederiksen, Carl Mitchell and Arnór Th. Sigfússon

      Version of Record online: 19 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12183

      Current initiatives to internationally manage the eastern population of pink-footed geese do not need to consider net immigration in predictive harvest models. For waterbirds in general, a targeted approach to evaluate connectivity, using classic marking studies in combination with molecular methods and focussed sampling on breeding grounds, is recommended to better underpin management decisions at population levels.

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      Upland land use predicts population decline in a globally near-threatened wader (pages 194–203)

      David J.T. Douglas, Paul E. Bellamy, Leigh S. Stephen, James W. Pearce–Higgins, Jeremy D. Wilson and Murray C. Grant

      Version of Record online: 16 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12167

      Upland land use is associated with curlew declines, with predation a likely mechanism, and this may apply to other breeding waders. The removal of isolated woodland plantations from otherwise unafforested landscapes may help reduce predation pressure across a range of systems including moorland. However, direct predator control may also be important to conserve ground-nesting birds in these landscapes, for example, where moorland management and forestry coexist as major land uses. Predator control may also mitigate climate change effects by enhancing wader productivity, particularly where climate effects coincide with changing land use. Emerging land uses in open landscapes, including native woodland restoration and wind farms, require careful siting to minimize further impacts on open-area breeding birds.

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      Modelling edge effects of mature forest plantations on peatland waders informs landscape-scale conservation (pages 204–213)

      Jeremy D. Wilson, Russell Anderson, Sallie Bailey, Jordan Chetcuti, Neil R. Cowie, Mark H. Hancock, Christopher P. Quine, Norrie Russell, Leigh Stephen and Des B. A. Thompson

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12173

      Edge effects of mature forestry on dunlin and golden plover are apparent over several hundred metres and are now being used to guide forest planning in northern Scotland. The scale of edge effect is broadly consistent with other avian studies in open-ground habitats across Eurasia and North America, so buffer zones of this order are consistent with possible impacts of plantation forestry on open-ground habitats of bird conservation interest. Given renewed interest in conifer afforestation as a climate change mitigation measure, an improved understanding of edge effects and the mechanisms through which they operate is vital to managing plantation forestry in ways that maintain open-ground landscapes of high conservation value.

  7. Species impacts on ecosystems

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Learning the ropes: mussel spat ropes improve fish and shrimp passage through culverts (pages 214–223)

      Bruno O. David, Jonathan D. Tonkin, Kristopher W. T. Taipeti and Hayden T. Hokianga

      Version of Record online: 27 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12178

      We conclude that this relatively inexpensive and easy-to-install tool has the potential to substantially improve passage for a range of aquatic biota through various culvert scenarios. We consider that ropes would be particularly useful in situations where internal culvert access is difficult and where various culvert parameters (slope, flow, length) result in internal barrel hydraulics that would normally limit or exclude passage of aquatic biota.

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      Mixed afforestation of young subtropical trees promotes nitrogen acquisition and retention (pages 224–233)

      Anne C. Lang, Goddert von Oheimb, Michael Scherer-Lorenzen, Bo Yang, Stefan Trogisch, Helge Bruelheide, Keping Ma and Werner Härdtle

      Version of Record online: 20 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12157

      This study provides evidence that mixed afforestation promotes N retention from the sapling stage. To further improve ecosystem services associated with afforestation, we strongly suggest the use of mixtures of native tree species instead of monocultures. Mixtures of four species may reduce system N losses and thus may lessen groundwater contamination due to N leaching. We encourage further investigations to find optimal species combinations that promote a wide range of ecosystem services related to more closed nutrient cycles and minimized soil erosion. In our study, the plantations' capability to retain N could be optimized by means of both increasing tree species richness and by choosing the optimal species combinations.

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      Complementary impacts of small rodents and semi-domesticated ungulates limit tall shrub expansion in the tundra (pages 234–241)

      Virve T. Ravolainen, Kari Anne Bråthen, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Julie K. Nguyen and Rolf A. Ims

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12180

      Sympatric populations of rodents and reindeer have strongly complementary impacts on shrub recruits and may limit the expansion potential of tall shrubs even in the most productive habitats of arctic tundra. The spatial correspondence between shrub recruits performance and herbivore abundances, found after a short time period, suggests that the extent of tall shrub expansion in tundra is contingent on current variation and future trends in herbivore populations. In areas where humans control large herbivore populations, management may opt to counteract climate-driven shrub expansion also in habitats that are most prone to such expansion.

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      Controls over the strength and timing of fire–grazer interactions in a semi-arid rangeland (pages 242–250)

      David J. Augustine and Justin D. Derner

      Version of Record online: 20 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12186

      Spatiotemporal interactions between fire and herbivores are a consistent feature of both semi-arid and mesic rangelands, with interaction strength varying across gradients of precipitation and primary productivity. Management of semi-arid ecosystems to sustain ecological processes should include strategies that allow ungulate herbivores to shift their grazing distribution seasonally in response to fire, topoedaphic variation and precipitation patterns. Combined management of fire and grazing for conservation objectives can be consistent with, and even complementary to, livestock production goals.

  8. Monitoring and managing populations

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Inferring extinctions from sighting records of variable reliability (pages 251–258)

      Tamsin E. Lee, Michael A. McCarthy, Brendan A. Wintle, Michael Bode, David L. Roberts and Mark A. Burgman

      Version of Record online: 19 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12144

      Estimating the probability that a species is extinct based on sighting records is important when determining conservation priorities and allocating available resources into management activities. Having a model that allows for certain and uncertain observations throughout the sighting period better accommodates the realities of sighting quality, providing a more reliable basis for decision-making.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      REVIEW: Ecological feedbacks can reduce population-level efficacy of wildlife fertility control (pages 259–269)

      Jason I. Ransom, Jenny G. Powers, N. Thompson Hobbs and Dan L. Baker

      Version of Record online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12166

      Upland land use is associated with curlew declines, with predation a likely mechanism, and this may apply to other breeding waders. The removal of isolated woodland plantations from otherwise unafforested landscapes may help reduce predation pressure across a range of systems including moorland. However, direct predator control may also be important to conserve ground-nesting birds in these landscapes, for example, where moorland management and forestry coexist as major land uses. Predator control may also mitigate climate change effects by enhancing wader productivity, particularly where climate effects coincide with changing land use. Emerging land uses in open landscapes, including native woodland restoration and wind farms, require careful siting to minimize further impacts on open-area breeding birds.

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      Two-sex matrix models in assessing population viability: when do male dynamics matter? (pages 270–278)

      Leah R. Gerber and Easton R. White

      Version of Record online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12177

      Conservation biologists should carefully consider the social structure and sex ratio of focal species in order to determine whether a two-sex matrix model will yield more accurate estimates of extinction risk than standard one-sex models.

  9. Corrigendum

    1. Top of page
    2. Practitioner's perspective
    3. Managing human impacts on wildlife
    4. Evidence-based management
    5. Invasive species and pest management
    6. Agriculture and biodiversity
    7. Landscape fragmentation and connectivity
    8. Species impacts on ecosystems
    9. Monitoring and managing populations
    10. Corrigendum
    1. You have free access to this content
      Corrigendum (page 279)

      Version of Record online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12204

      This article corrects:

      Hull fouling as an invasion vector: can simple models explain a complex problem?

      Vol. 48, Issue 2, 415–423, Version of Record online: 16 FEB 2011

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