• amplified fragment length polymorphism;
  • diversity;
  • gene flow;
  • index of association;
  • resistance to strobilurin;
  • migration


The genetic structure of the fungal barley pathogen Ramularia collo-cygni (Rcc) population in Central Europe involving the isolates from the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Germany and Swiss was determined using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. One hundred and eighty-four markers were chosen to determine genetic and genotypic diversity and to test the hypothesis of random mating and population differentiation of Rcc isolates. Among the 337 isolates collected, the overall gene diversity was moderate (inline image = 0.216). The level of multilocus genotypic diversity was higher within populations than among them. All individuals had unique multilocus genotypes. Genetic differentiation was significant among populations in localities, but at a moderate level (θ = 0.12; P < 0.001), suggesting that gene flow is occurring among populations. The isolates from all twelve clusters produced by Structure were found in all local populations, although at different frequencies. Therefore, the inferred clusters did not represent geographical populations. Although the null hypothesis of random mating in Rcc populations was rejected, the high level of genotypic diversity suggests that the Rcc population structure appears to be generated by a mixed reproductive system including both asexual and sexual reproduction, along with a rather high migration rate.