Anti-inflammatory effect of hexane fraction from Myagropsis myagroides ethanolic extract in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells
Hyeung-Rak Kim, Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pukyong National University, 599-1 Daeyeon-3-dong, Nam-gu, Busan 608-737, South Korea.
Microglial activation has been implicated in neurological disorders for its inflammatory and neurotrophic effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of the hexane fraction from Myagropsis myagroides (Mertens ex Turner) Fensholt ethanolic extract and its underlying molecular mechanism in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia.
Various solvent fractions prepared from the ethanolic extract of M. myagroides were analysed for total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in activated BV-2 microglia. We measured prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Expression of inflammatory enzymes was analysed by Western blot. Nuclear translocation and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were determined by immunofluorescence and reporter gene assay, respectively.
Among the fractions, the hexane fraction (MMH), rich in fatty acid, showed the highest inhibitory activity on NO generation. Pretreatment with MMH decreased mRNA and protein levels of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, resulting in a decrease in NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Furthermore, MMH inhibited the production of inducible pro-inflammatory cytokines at their transcriptional level via inactivation of NF-κB. MMH inhibited the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase.
These results indicate that MMH has a strong anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated microglia, suggesting that MMH can be used as a therapeutic agent against neuroinflammatory diseases.