α-Iso-cubebenol inhibits inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity and amyloid beta 1–42 fibril-induced microglial activation

Authors


Abstract

Objectives

To examine the antineuroinflammatory and neuroprotective activity of α-iso-cubebenol and its molecular mechanism of action in amyloid β (Aβ) 1–42 fibril-stimulated microglia.

Methods

Aβ 1–42 fibrils were used to induce a neuroinflammatory response in murine primary microglia and BV-2 murine microglia cell lines. Cell viability was monitored by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity was determined by gelatin zymography assay. In addition, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were measured by ELISA, and the transactivity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB was determined by a reporter assay.

Key findings

α-Iso-cubebenol significantly inhibited Aβ 1–42 fibril-induced MMP-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expressions and activity, without affecting cell viability. α-Iso-cubebenol also suppressed the production of tumour necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent manner, while decreasing the nuclear translocation and transactivity of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of the inhibitor of κB (IκB)α. α-Iso-cubebenol suppressed the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in Aβ 1–42 fibril-stimulated microglia. Primary cortical neurons were protected by the inhibitory effect of α-iso-cubebenol on Aβ 1–42 fibril-induced neuroinflammatory response.

Conclusions

α-Iso-cubebenol suppresses Aβ 1–42 fibril-induced neuroinflammatory molecules in primary microglia via the suppression of NF-κB/inhibitor of κBα and MAPK. Importantly, the antineuroinflammatory potential of α-iso-cubebenol is critical for neuroprotection.

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