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Keywords:

  • mental health;
  • schizophrenia;
  • survey designs

Accessible summary

  • Self-efficacy is known as an effective model used to predict the self-care ability and self-care outcomes of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.
  • This descriptive comparative design study compared differences in scores of self-efficacy and self-care behaviours between outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes and outpatients with only type 2 diabetes.
  • The study revealed that outpatients with coexisting schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes scored significantly lower on self-efficacy and self-care measures compared with outpatients affected only by type 2 diabetes; thus, a self-efficacy education programme must be developed to assist them in successfully managing their dual illnesses.
  • Self-efficacy, the haemoglobin A1C level and cigarette smoking were significant predictors of self-care behaviours in outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes; therefore, these outcome variables should be monitored regularly in outpatient settings.

Abstract

People with schizophrenia show higher-than-normal rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, research on their understanding of diabetes self-efficacy and self-care behaviours is lacking. This study compared differences in scores of self-efficacy and self-care behaviours between outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and T2DM and outpatients with T2DM alone. Data were collected using the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale and Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activity questionnaire. In total, 105 outpatients with schizophrenia and T2DM and 106 outpatients with T2DM returned completed questionnaires. Results of this study revealed that outpatients with schizophrenia and T2DM had significantly lower total self-efficacy and self-care scores than outpatients with only T2DM. The stepwise regression analysis revealed that self-efficacy, the haemoglobin A1C level and current smoking were significant predictors of self-care behaviours in outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and T2DM, which explained 33.20% of the variance. These findings help mental health professionals improve patient care through a better understanding of self-care behaviours among outpatients with comorbid schizophrenia and T2DM.