• perception/thought/emotion/context questionnaire;
  • recognition memory;
  • remember/know judgment;
  • schema


We examined how the schema affects recognition memories and subjective experiences for actions and objects. First, participants watched consecutive slides that described a man in the kitchen. In the slides, the man performed schema-consistent actions and schema-inconsistent actions, and schema-consistent objects and schema-inconsistent objects were left in the kitchen space. After watching the slides, participants completed a recognition test, a remember/know test, and a Perception/Thought/Emotion/Context questionnaire. For objects, the discrimination between targets and distracters was more accurate for schema-inconsistent items than for schema-consistent items, owing to perceptual, thought, and emotional recollections for schema-inconsistent object targets. For actions, schema-consistent targets were more frequently recognized than schema-inconsistent targets, with more remember judgments based on perceptual and contextual recollections. While item-specific information of schema-inconsistent targets could be elaborated for objects, the perceptual details and the contextual relationship of schema-consistent targets could be elaborated for actions. We also found less false recognitions for schema-consistent action distracters than for schema-consistent object distracters. The retrieval of the perceptual details of schema-consistent action targets could prevent false recognitions for schema-consistent action distracters.