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Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on short chain fatty acid levels in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis

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Abstract

Background and Objective

Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play important roles in periodontal diseases. However, the concentrations of SCFAs in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with aggressive periodontitis are not known. The aim of this intervention study was to investigate the influences of non-surgical periodontal therapy on levels of SCFAs in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis (G-AgP), and analyze the concentrations of SCFAs in sites with or without the detected putative periodontal pathogens.

Material and Methods

Eighty gingival crevicular fluid samples (four per subject) were collected on filter paper strips from patients with G-AgP (n = 20; mean age 24.5 years), before and at 2 wk, 2, 4 and 6 mo after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Eighty gingival crevicular fluid samples (four per subject) were collected from periodontally healthy controls (n = 20; mean age 26.2 years). Concentrations of formic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and isovaleric acid from the supernatant of gingival crevicular fluid samples were measured by high performance capillary electrophoresis. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum from the precipitate of the same pretreatment samples of gingival crevicular fluids were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification.

Results

The clinical parameters of patients with G-AgP during the 6 mo after non-surgical periodontal treatment were improved remarkably. The formic acid concentration increased significantly after treatment; the level of formic acid was lower in the P. gingivalis-, T. denticola-, P. intermedia- or F. nucleatum-positive sites compared with the negative sites. The concentrations of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid reduced significantly after treatment and reached the lowest level at 2 wk post-treatment, although showed a tendency to increase after 2 mo post-treatment, and the three SCFA levels were significantly higher in P. gingivalis-, T. denticola-, P. intermedia- or F. nucleatum-positive sites compared with those in the negative sites.

Conclusion

Non-surgical periodontal treatment resulted in a significant decrease of acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid levels and increase of formic acid level in gingival crevicular fluids in patients with G-AgP, accompanied by improvement in clinical parameters. A marked lower level of formic acid, as well as higher levels of acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with G-AgP was consistent with periodontal pathogen infection.

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