Angiostrongylosis was diagnosed in a 2-year-old whippet which was presented with spontaneous pneumothorax based on detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum first-stage larvae on lung histology and in faeces. Thoracic radiographs and computed tomography imaging revealed bilateral pneumothorax with a gas-filled bulla in the right caudal lung lobe. On thoracotomy, continuous air leakage was observed from the bulla. Histologic examination of lobectomised tissue confirmed the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous pneumonia due to A. vasorum infection. The dog was treated with fenbendazole until negative for larvae on faecal examination and recovered completely.
The most commonly reported clinical signs of angiostrongylosis are related to the respiratory tract, including cough and dyspnoea leading to exercise intolerance, and rarely haemothorax (Chapman et al. 2004, Sasanelli et al. 2008, Koch and Willesen 2009). Pneumothorax has been mentioned in association with angiostrongylosis (Martin et al. 1993, Gallagher et al. 2012), but has not been described in detail so far. Identification of the underlying cause is important for the prognosis and treatment of pneumothorax. Angiostrongylosis should be considered as a possible aetiological cause of spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs even in the absence of radiological changes supportive of an A. vasorum infection.