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Treatment of canine idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia with mycophenolate mofetil and glucocorticoids: 30 cases (2007 to 2011)

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Abstract

Objective

To compare short-term outcome and frequency of adverse events for dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia treated with glucocorticoids and mycophenolate mofetil vs alternate immunosuppressive protocols.

Methods

A retrospective study of medical case records of dogs with immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia was conducted. Data collected included signalment, clinicopathological data, medications administered, duration of hospitalization, short-term survival and adverse events. Variables were compared between dogs treated with glucocorticoids and mycophenolate mofetil (mycophenolate mofetil group) vs dogs treated with other two-drug immunosuppressive protocols (combined group).

Results

Sixty-four cases of idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia were identified. Two dogs were euthanased without treatment, three received glucocorticoids alone, and seven received two additional drugs. Fifty-two dogs received glucocorticoids and additional immunosuppressive medications: 30 mycophenolate mofetil, 15 cyclosporine, 6 azathioprine and 1 human immunoglobulin. There was no significant difference between the discharge rate, 30-day or 60-day survival rates between the mycophenolate mofetil and the combined groups (Fisher's exact; P=0·272, 0·518, 1·000, respectively). The sole adverse event observed in the mycophenolate mofetil group was diarrhoea (n=5).

Clinical Significance

Administration of mycophenolate mofetil appears safe in dogs with idiopathic immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia. The combination of glucocorticoids and mycophenolate mofetil has similar efficacy to alternate immunosuppressive protocols used to treat this disease.

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