V. Black's current address is Department of Clinical Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford House, Langford, Bristol BS40 5DU
Phenotypic characterisation of canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in the Border terrier
Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Journal of Small Animal Practice published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Small Animal Veterinary Association
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Journal of Small Animal Practice
Volume 55, Issue 2, pages 102–107, February 2014
How to Cite
Black, V., Garosi, L., Lowrie, M., Harvey, R. J. and Gale, J. (2014), Phenotypic characterisation of canine epileptoid cramping syndrome in the Border terrier. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 55: 102–107. doi: 10.1111/jsap.12170
- Issue published online: 23 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 26 DEC 2013
- Accepted: 9 November 2013
To characterise the phenotype of Border terriers suspected to be affected by canine epileptoid cramping syndrome and to identify possible contributing factors.
Owners of Border terriers with suspected canine epileptoid cramping syndrome were invited to complete an online questionnaire. The results of these responses were collated and analysed.
Twenty-nine Border terriers were included. Most affected dogs had their first episode before 3 years of age (range: 0·2 to 7·0 years). The majority of episodes lasted between 2 and 30 minutes (range: 0·5 to 150 minutes). The most frequent observations during the episodes were difficulty in walking (27 of 29), mild tremor (21 of 29) and dystonia (22 of 29). Episodes most frequently affected all four limbs (25 of 29) and the head and neck (21 of 29). Borborygmi were reported during episodes in 11 of 29 dogs. Episodes of vomiting and diarrhoea occurred in 14 of 29, with 50% of these being immediately before or after episodes of canine epileptoid cramping syndrome (7 of 14). Most owners (26 of 29) had changed their dog's diet, with approximately 50% (14 of 26) reporting a subsequent reduction in the frequency of episodes.
This study demonstrates similarities in the phenotype of canine epileptoid cramping syndrome to paroxysmal dystonic choreoathetosis, a paroxysmal dyskinesia reported in humans. This disorder appears to be associated with gastrointestinal signs in some dogs and appears at least partially responsive to dietary adjustments.