Existing research on entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has concentrated on the organizational level but neglected the analysis of more fine-grained effects of EO in organizations. This study applies the concept of EO to the departmental level and investigates the sales department's entrepreneurial orientation (SDEO) and salespeople's learning orientation (SLO) and these orientations' impact on sales performance. Using a survey of 268 small and medium-sized enterprises, the authors find that SDEO is a key performance lever, whereas SLO only indirectly fosters sales performance through driving SDEO. Furthermore, informal controls and technological turbulence are found to be important drivers of SDEO and SLO.