The Impact of Cultural Openness, Religion, and Nationalism on Entrepreneurial Intensity: Six Prototypical Cases of Turkish Family Firms



The literature on family business and entrepreneurship has not fully investigated the combined effects of cultural openness, religion, and nationalism on entrepreneurial intensity in a firm. This is especially true for firms outside of Western Europe and North America. To address this gap, the study examines the impact of these factors using a set of six Turkish entrepreneurial family firms. Entrepreneurial intensity is evaluated on the basis of the formulation put forth by Morris and Sexton (1996), highlighting the degree and frequency of entrepreneurship. Results show that Islam is conducive to entrepreneurial intensity within Turkish context. Nationalistic firms show lower frequency and degree of entrepreneurial intensity.