The first two authors contributed equally to this manuscript.
Effects of Supraphysiological Testosterone Treatment and Orchiectomy on Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Bladder Dysfunction in Male Rabbits
Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013
© 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Volume 10, Issue 5, pages 1278–1290, May 2013
How to Cite
Effects of supraphysiological testosterone treatment and orchiectomy on ischemia/reperfusion-induced bladder dysfunction in male rabbits. J Sex Med 2013;10:1278–1290., , , , , , , , and
- Issue published online: 25 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 27 FEB 2013
- National Science Council. Grant Number: NSC 98-2314-B-037-040-MY3
- Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Grant Number: KMUH-100-0R44
- Kaohsiung Medical University. Grant Number: KMU-Q098015
- Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital. Grant Numbers: kmhk 100-025, kmhk 97-007
The roles of testosterone and orchiectomy on male bladder subjected to ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injuries received little attention. To fill this gap, the present study intended to examine testosterone and orchiectomy effects on male rabbits subjected to I/R damages.
To elucidate the effects of testosterone and orchiectomy on contractile response, bladder morphology, interstitial fibrosis, and oxidative stress in male rabbit bladder subjected to I/R surgery.
Male New Zealand rabbits were distributed into five groups as follows: Group 1 received sham surgical procedure. In group 2, I/R surgery was performed. In group 3, testosterone (100 μg/kg/day) was intramuscularly injected prior to I/R surgery. In group 4, orchiectomy was performed prior to I/R surgery. In group 5, orchiectomy was performed with subsequent testosterone administration, followed by I/R surgery. All the rabbits were euthanized 7 days after I/R. Comparative studies were analyzed to elucidate the effects of testosterone and orchiectomy on bladder dysfunction subjected to I/R injuries.
Main Outcome Measures
Bladder contractile function was evaluated. Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemical studies were performed to evaluate bladder morphology and intramural nerve terminals. Western blotting was examined to investigate the expressions of fibrosis and oxidative stress markers.
I/R surgery significantly decreased bladder contractility in response to various stimulations with and without testosterone treatment. I/R damages decreased bladder nerve density with and without testosterone. The expressions of fibrosis and oxidative stress-related proteins were increased by I/R injuries with or without testosterone treatment. Testosterone depletion significantly decreased the expressions of transforming growth factor-β and fibronectin expressions after I/R injury. Supraphysiological testosterone treatment after orchiectomy greatly increased the expressions of these fibrosis proteins; however, orchiectomy alone ameliorated I/R injuries.
Testosterone treatment or orchiectomy affected I/R-induced bladder damages in male rabbits. Orchiectomy decreased the level of fibrosis and oxidative stress markers and increased neurofilament densities. Supraphysiological exogenous testosterone administration after orchiectomy further exacerbated such detrimental effects of I/R.