Sexual and Relationship Satisfaction and Vestibular Pain Sensitivity among Women with Provoked Vestibulodynia
Corresponding Author: Kelly B. Smith, PhD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, 2775 Laurel Street, 6th Floor, Vancouver, BC, Canada V5Z 1M9. Tel: 604-875-4111 ext. 68901; Fax: 604-875-4869; E-mail: Kelly.Smith@vch.ca
Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a common cause of painful intercourse. Despite the fact that PVD is associated with high levels of pain and negative impact on women's sexuality, research has not examined associations between affected women's pain sensitivity and their sexual and relationship satisfaction.
This study aimed to examine sexual and relationship functioning/satisfaction and vestibular pain sensitivity among PVD-affected women, and potential associations between these variables.
Participants were 17 women with PVD and 17 matched controls. Women were assessed via a gynecological examination, structured interview, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), and Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS). Additionally, women completed a quantitative sensory testing session to assess vestibular pain thresholds and associated pain ratings; specifically, vestibular pressure-pain and heat pain thresholds were measured.
Main Outcome Measures
Gynecological and intercourse pain ratings; FSFI; GRISS; DAS; vestibular pressure-pain threshold; and vestibular heat pain thresholds.
PVD-affected women reported significantly decreased sexual function in comparison with controls. While no differences in relationship satisfaction were found between groups, women with PVD did report less sexual satisfaction on the FSFI. PVD-affected women also reported significantly higher vestibular pain ratings associated with the gynecological examination and heat pain tolerance procedures, and lower pressure-pain threshold, heat pain threshold, and heat pain tolerance at the vestibule in comparison with controls. Among women with PVD, lower heat pain threshold was associated with less sexual satisfaction, and higher pain ratings related to intercourse and heat pain tolerance, respectively, were associated with lower sexual function and satisfaction.
The results indicate that women with PVD experience negative sexual effects and increased pain sensitivity. This study also suggests that some aspects of pain may be related to lower levels of sexual function and satisfaction among affected women. Smith KB, Pukall CF, and Chamberlain SM. Sexual and relationship satisfaction and vestibular pain sensitivity among women with provoked vestibulodynia. J Sex Med 2013;10:2009–2023.