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Mitochondrial Impairment and Oxidative Stress in Leukocytes after Testosterone Administration to Female-To-Male Transsexuals

Authors

  • Víctor M. Victor PhD,

    Corresponding author
    1. Endocrinology Service, Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO), University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    2. Endocrinology Service, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    3. Institute of Health Research INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain
    4. Department of Pharmacology and CIBER CB06/04/0071 Research Group, CIBER Hepatic and Digestive Diseases, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    5. Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    • Corresponding Authors: Antonio Hernández-Mijares, MD, PhD and Víctor M. Victor, PhD, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Avda Gaspar Aguilar 90, 46017, Valencia, Spain. Tel: 0034961622757; Fax: 0034961622492; E-mail: hernandez_antmij@gva.es; Victor.Victor@uv.es

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  • Milagros Rocha PhD,

    1. Endocrinology Service, Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO), University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    2. Endocrinology Service, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    3. Institute of Health Research INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain
    4. Department of Pharmacology and CIBER CB06/04/0071 Research Group, CIBER Hepatic and Digestive Diseases, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
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  • Celia Bañuls PhD,

    1. Endocrinology Service, Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO), University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    2. Endocrinology Service, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    3. Institute of Health Research INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain
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  • Susana Rovira-Llopis PhD,

    1. Endocrinology Service, Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO), University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    2. Endocrinology Service, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
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  • Marcelino Gómez MD, PhD,

    1. Endocrinology Service, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
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  • Antonio Hernández-Mijares MD, PhD

    Corresponding author
    1. Endocrinology Service, Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community (FISABIO), University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    2. Endocrinology Service, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain
    3. Institute of Health Research INCLIVA, Valencia, Spain
    4. Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain
    • Corresponding Authors: Antonio Hernández-Mijares, MD, PhD and Víctor M. Victor, PhD, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Avda Gaspar Aguilar 90, 46017, Valencia, Spain. Tel: 0034961622757; Fax: 0034961622492; E-mail: hernandez_antmij@gva.es; Victor.Victor@uv.es

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Abstract

Introduction

Testosterone undecanoate (T) treatment is common in female-to-male transsexuals (FtMs) but can induce impairment of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.

Aim

The effect of T treatment on the mitochondrial function and redox state of leukocytes of FtMs subjects was evaluated.

Methods

This was an observational study conducted in a university hospital. Fifty-seven FtMs were treated with T (1,000 mg) for 12 weeks, after which anthropometric and metabolic parameters and mitochondrial function were evaluated.

Main Outcome Measures

Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated. Mitochondrial function was studied by assessing mitochondrial oxygen (O2) consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, glutathione levels (GSH), and the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH)/(GSSG) ratio in polymorphonuclear cells.

Results

T treatment led to mitochondrial impairment in FtMs as a result of a decrease in mitochondria O2 consumption, the membrane potential, GSH levels, and the (GSH)/(GSSG) ratio and an increase in ROS production. Mitochondrial O2 consumption and membrane potential negatively correlated with T levels, which was further confirmed that the T treatment had induced mitochondrial dysfunction. T also produced a significant increase in total testosterone, free androgenic index, and atherogenic index of plasma, and a decrease in sex hormone-binding globulin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Conclusions

Treatment of FtMs with T can induce impairment of mitochondrial function and a state of oxidative stress. This effect should be taken into account in order to modulate possible comorbidities in these patients. Victor VM, Rocha M, Bañuls C, Rovira-Llopis S, Gómez M, and Hernández-Mijares A. Mitochondrial impairment and oxidative stress in leukocytes after testosterone administration to female-to-male transsexuals. J Sex Med 2014;11:454–461.

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