Vitamin D Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Hypogonadism
Article first published online: 18 NOV 2013
© 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine
The Journal of Sexual Medicine
Volume 11, Issue 2, pages 536–542, February 2014
How to Cite
Bellastella, G., Maiorino, M. I., Olita, L., Capuano, A., Rafaniello, C., Giugliano, D. and Esposito, K. (2014), Vitamin D Deficiency in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Hypogonadism. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 11: 536–542. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12384
- Issue published online: 27 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 18 NOV 2013
- 25-Hydroxyvitamin D;
- Type 2 Diabetes;
Both type 2 diabetes and secondary hypogonadism may be associated with low vitamin D levels.
The aim of this study was to evaluate 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in type 2 diabetic males with and without hypogonadism.
We performed a case–control study among 122 male adults with type 2 diabetes, 51 with associated hypogonadism (Group 1) and 71 with normal gonadal function (Group 2). One hundred age-matched nondiabetic males with normal gonadal function served as a control group.
Main Outcome Measures
Levels of 25(OH)D were assessed by a chemiluminescent immunoassay in all patients. Morning testosterone, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid hormones, fasting glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were also evaluated.
The overall diabetic population showed a mean 25(OH)D concentration (22.3 ± 6.09 ng/mL) significantly lower than the control group (34.3 ± 7.2, P < 0.001), with 81% of diabetic patients presenting 25(OH)D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) or insufficiency (20–29.9 ng/mL). The lowest 25(OH)D concentration was found in Group 1 (20.1 ± 6.58 ng/mL). Concentration of 25(OH)D was significantly lower in the 42 patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism as compared with the 9 patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (19.4 ± 7.06 vs. 23.8 ± 6.11 ng/mL, P < 0.001). No difference in erectile dysfunction (ED) prevalence between Group 1 and Group 2 was found, nor was there a correlation between the severity of ED and vitamin D levels (r = −0.10, P = 0.39).
These results show that type 2 diabetic patients with hypogonadism present lower 25(OH)D concentration and higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, compared with patients without hypogonadism. The finding that 25(OH)D concentrations were similar between type 2 diabetic patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and those with normal gonadal function deserves further study. Bellastella G, Maiorino MI, Olita L, Capuano A, Rafaniello C, Giugliano D, and Esposito K. Vitamin D deficiency in type 2 diabetic patients with hypogonadism. J Sex Med 2014;11:536–542.