• 1
    Brunekreef B, Holgate ST. Air pollution and health. Lancet 2002; 360: 123342.
  • 2
    Nemery B, Hoet PH, Nenmar A. The Meuse Valley fog of 1930: an air pollution disaster. Lancet 2001; 357: 7048.
  • 3
    Logan WP. Mortality in the London fog incident, 1952. Lancet 1953; 1: 3368.
  • 4
    Dockery DW, Pope CA III, Xu X, Spangler JD, Ware JH, Fay ME, Farris BG Jr, Speizer FE. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 17539.
  • 5
    Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Fischer P, van Wijnen J. The association between air pollution and heart failure, arrhythmia, embolism, thrombosis, and other cardiovascular causes of death in a time series study. Epidemiology 2001; 12: 3557.
  • 6
    Pope CA III, Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Dockery DW, Evans JS, Speizer FE, Heath CW Jr. Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151: 66974.
  • 7
    Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, Pope CA III, Brook JR, Bhatnagar A, Diez-Roux AV, Holguin F, Hong Y, Luepker RV, Mittleman MA, Peters A, Siscovick D, Smith SC Jr, Whitsel L, Kaufman JD; American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: an update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2010; 121: 233178.
  • 8
    Franchini M, Mannucci PM. Short-term effects of air pollution on cardiovascular diseases: outcomes and mechanisms. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 216974.
  • 9
    Franchini M, Mannucci PM. Particulate air pollution and cardiovascular risk: short-term and long-term effects. Semin Thromb Hemost 2009; 35: 66570.
  • 10
    Nawrot TS, Perez L, Künzli N, Munters E, Nemery B. Public health importance of triggers of myocardial infarction: a comparative risk assessment. Lancet 2011; 377: 73240.
  • 11
    World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory. Outdoor air Pollution. Available online at Accessed 29 July 2012.
  • 12
    United States Environmental Protection Agency. Sources of Pollutants in the Ambient Air. Available at Accessed 29 July 2012.
  • 13
    Sydbom A, Blomberg A, Parnia S, Stenfors N, Sandstorm T, Dahlen SE. Health effects of diesel exhaust emissions. Eur Respir J 2001; 17: 73346.
  • 14
    Schwarze PE, Ovreik J, Lag M, Refsnes M, Nafstad P, Hetland RB, Dybing E. Particulate matter properties and health effects. Consistency of epidemiological and toxicological studies. Hum Exp Toxicol 2006; 25: 55979.
  • 15
    Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T. Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev 2008; 26: 33962.
  • 16
    Franck U, Odeh S, Wiedensohler A, Wehner B, Herbarth O. The effect of particle size on cardiovascular disorders – the smaller the worse. Sci Total Environ 2011; 409: 421721.
  • 17
    Brown JS, Zeman KL, Bennett WD. Ultrafine particle deposition and clearance in the healthy and obstructed lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002; 166: 12407.
  • 18
    Mills NL, Amin N, Robinson SD, Anand A, Davies J, Patel D, de la Fuente JM, Cassee FR, Boon NA, Macnee W, Millar AM, Donaldson K, Newby DE. Do inhaled carbon nanoparticles translocate directly into the circulation in humans? Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 42631.
  • 19
    Nemmar A, Vanbilloen H, Hoylaerts MF, Hoet PH, Verbruggen A, Nemery B. Passage of intratracheally instilled ultrafine particles from the lung into the systemic circulation in hamster. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 16658.
  • 20
    World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory Data Repository. Annual mean PM10 (Particulate Matter with diameter of 10 μm or less), by city. Urban Outdoor Air Pollution Database, August 2011. Available at Accessed 29 July 2012.
  • 21
    Franchini M, Mannucci PM. Thrombogenicity and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution. Blood 2011; 118: 240512.
  • 22
    Langrish JP, Bosson J, Unosson J, Muala A, Newby DE, Mills NL, Blomberg A, Sandström T. Cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution: time course and underlying mechanisms. J Intern Med 2012; 272: 22439.
  • 23
    Verrier RL, Mittleman MA, Stone PH. Air pollution. An insidious and pervasive component of cardiac risk. Circulation 2002; 106: 8902.
  • 24
    Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, Zanobetti A, Grillo P, Hou LF, Bertazzi PA, Mannucci PM. Exposure to particulate air pollution and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 9207.
  • 25
    Samet JM, Dominici F, Curriero FC, Coursac I, Zeger SL. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in 20 U.S. cities, 1987–1994. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 17429.
  • 26
    Analitis A, Katsouyanni K, Dimikopoulo K, Samoli E, Nikoloulopoulos AK, Petasakis Y, Touloumi G, Schwartz J, Anderson HR, Cambra K, Forastiere F, Zmirou D, Vonk JM, Clancy L, Kriz B, Bobvos J, Pekkanen J. Short term effects of ambient particles on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. Epidemiology 2006; 17: 2303.
  • 27
    Biggeri A, Bellini O, Terracini B. Meta-analysis of the Italian studies on short-term effects of air pollution MISA 1996–2002. Epidemiol Prev 2004; 28 (Suppl. 4–5): 4100. [Article in Italian].
  • 28
    Le Tertre A, Quenel P, Eilstein D, Medina S, Prouvost H, Pascal L, Boumghar A, Saviuc P, Zenghnoun A, Filleul L, Declercq C, Cassadou S, Le Goaster C. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality in nine French cities. Arch Environ Health 2002; 57: 3119.
  • 29
    Morris RD. Airborne particulates and hospital admissions for cardiovascular disease: a quantitative review of the evidence. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109(Suppl 4): 495500.
  • 30
    Ballester F, Rodriguez P, Iniguez C, Saez M, Daponte A, Galan I, Taracido M, Arribas F, Bellido J, Cirarda FB, Canada A, Guillen JJ, Guillen-Grima F, Lopez E, Perez-Hoyoz S, Lertxundi A, Toro S. Air pollution and cardiovascular admission association in Spain: results within the EMECAS project. J Epidemiol Community Health 2006; 60: 32836.
  • 31
    Le Tetre A, Medina S, Samoli E, Forsberg B, Michelozzi P, Boumghar A, Vonk JM, Bellini A, Atkinson R, Ayres JG, Sunyer J, Schwartz J, Katsouyanni K. Short-term effects of particulate air pollution on cardiovascular diseases in eight European cities. J Epidemiol Community Health 2002; 56: 7739.
  • 32
    Dominici F, Peng RD, Bell ML, Pham L, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM. Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA 2006; 295: 112734.
  • 33
    Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Air pollution and emergency admissions in Boston. J Epdemiol Community Health 2006; 60: 8905.
  • 34
    Wellenius GA, Schwartz J, Mittleman MA. Particulate air pollutionand hospital admissions for congestive heart failure in seven United States cities. Am J Cardiol 2006; 97: 4048.
  • 35
    Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The effect of particulate air pollution on emergency admission of myocardial infarction: a multicity case-crossover analysis. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 113: 97882.
  • 36
    Pope CA III, Muhlestein JB, May HT, Renlund DG, Anderson JL, Horne BD. Ischemic heart disease triggered by short-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Circulation 2006; 114: 24438.
  • 37
    Peters A, von Klot S, Heier M, Trentinaglia I, Hörmann A, Wichmann HE, Löwel H; Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Study Group. Exposure to traffic and the onset of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 172130.
  • 38
    Peters A, Dockery DW, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction. Circulation 2001; 103: 28105.
  • 39
    Lanki T, Pekkanen J, Aalto P, Elosua R, Berglind N, D’Ippoliti D, Kulmala M, Nyberg F, Peters A, Picciotto S, Salomaa V, Sunyer J, Tiittanen P, von Klot S, Forastiere F. Associations of traffic related air pollutants with hospitalisation for first acute myocardial infarction: the HEAPSS study. Occup Environ Med 2006; 63: 84451.
  • 40
    Von Klot S, Peters A, Aalto P, Bellander T, Berglind N, D’Ippoliti D, Elosua R, Hörmann A, Kulmala M, Lanki T, Löwel H, Pekkanen J, Picciotto S, Sunyer J, Forastiere F; Health Effects of Particles on Susceptible Subpopulations (HEAPSS) Study Group. Ambient air pollution is associated with increased risk of hospital cardiac readmissions of myocardial infarction survivors in five European cities. Circulation 2005; 112: 30739.
  • 41
    Mustafic H, Jabre P, Caussin C, Murad MH, Escolano S, Tafflet M, Périer MC, Marijon E, Vernerey D, Empana JP, Jouven X. Main air pollutants and myocardial infarction a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2012; 307: 71321.
  • 42
    Kettunen J, Lanki T, Tittanen P, Aalto PP, Koskentalo T, Kulmala M, Salomaa V, Pekkanen J. Association of fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution with stroke mortality in an area of low air pollution levels. Stroke 2007; 38: 91822.
  • 43
    Wellenius GA, Schwartz J, Mittleman MA. Air pollution and hospital admissions for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among Medicare beneficiaries. Stroke 2005; 36: 254953.
  • 44
    Andersen ZJ, Olsen TS, Andersen KK, Loft S, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O. Association between short-term exposure to ultrafine particles and hospital admissions for stroke in Copenhagen, Denmark. Eur Heart J 2010; 31: 203440.
  • 45
    Low RB, Bielory L, Qureshi AI, Dunn V, Stuhlmiller DFE, Dickey DA. The relation of stroke admissions to recent weather, airborne allergens, air pollution, seasons, upper respiratory infections, and asthma incidence, September 11, 2001 and day of the week. Stroke 2006; 37: 9517.
  • 46
    Dales RE, Cakmak S, Vidal B. Air pollution and hospitalization for venous thromboembolic disease in Chile. J Thromb Haemost 2010; 8: 66974.
  • 47
    Martinelli N, Girelli D, Cigolini D, Sandri M, Ricci G, Rocca G, Olivieri O. Access rate to the emergency department for venous thromboembolism in relationship with coarse and fine particulate matter air pollution. PLoS One 2012; 7: e34831.
  • 48
    Laden F, Schwartz J, Speizer FE, Dockery DW. Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006; 173: 66772.
  • 49
    Lepeule J, Laden F, Dockery D, Schwartz J. Chronic exposure to fine particles and mortality: an extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study from 1974 to 2009. Environ Health Perspect 2012; 120: 96570.
  • 50
    Pope C, Burnett R, Thurston G, Thun M, Calle E, Krewski D, Godleski J. Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution: epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease. Circulation 2004; 109: 717.
  • 51
    Jerrett M, Burnett RT, Ma R, Pope CA III, Krewski D, Newbold KB, Thurston G, Shi Y, Finkelstein N, Calle EE, Thun MJ. Spatial analysis of air pollution and mortality in Los Angeles. Epidemiology 2005; 16: 72736.
  • 52
    Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Goldbohm S, Fischer P, van den Brandt PA. Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study. Lancet 2002; 360: 12039.
  • 53
    Miller KA, Siscovick DS, Sheppard L, Shepherd K, Sullivan JH, Anderson GL, Kaufman JD. Long-term exposure to air pollution and incidence of cardiovascular events in women. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 44758.
  • 54
    Toren K, Bergdahl IA, Nilsson T, Järvholm B. Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Occup Environ Med 2007; 64: 5159.
  • 55
    Lipsett MJ, Ostro BD, Reynolds P, Goldberg D, Hertz A, Jerrett M, Smith DF, Garcia C, Chang ET, Bernstein L. Long-term exposure to air pollution and cardiorespiratory disease in the California teachers study cohort. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 184: 82835.
  • 56
    Rosenbloom JI, Wilker EH, Mukamal KJ, Schwartz J, Mittelman MA. Residential proximity to major roadway and 10-year-all-cause mortality after myocardial infarction. Circulation 2012; 125: 2197203.
  • 57
    Maheswaran R, Pearson T, Smeeton NC, Beevers SD, Campbell MJ, Wolfe CD. Impact of outdoor air pollution on survival after stroke: population-based cohort study. Stroke 2010; 41: 86977.
  • 58
    Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Mack WJ, Beckerman B, LaBree L, Gilliland F, Thomas D, Peters J, Hodis HN. Ambient air pollution and atherosclerosis in Los Angeles. Environ Health Perspect 2005; 113: 2016.
  • 59
    Kunzli N, Jerrett M, Garcia-Esteban R, Basagaña X, Beckermann B, Gilliland F, Medina M, Peters J, Hodis HN, Mack WJ. Ambient air pollution and the progression of atherosclerosis in adults. PLoS One 2010; 5: e9096.
  • 60
    Bauer M, Moebus S, Möhlenkamp S, Dragano N, Nonnemacher M, Fuchsluger M, Kessler C, Jakobs H, Memmesheimer M, Erbel R, Jöckel KH, Hoffmann B; HNR Study Investigative Group. Urban particulate matter air pollution is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis: results from the HNR (Heinz Nixdorf Recall) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56: 18038.
  • 61
    Hoffmann B, Moebus S, Möhlenkamp S, Stang A, Lehmann N, Dragano N, Schmermund A, Memmesheimer M, Mann K, Erbel R, Jöckel KH; Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study Investigative Group. Residential exposure to traffic is associated with coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 2007; 116: 48996.
  • 62
    Lambrechtsen J, Gerke O, Egstrup K, Sand NP, Nørgaard BL, Petersen H, Mickley H, Diederichsen AC. The relation between coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic subjects and both traditional risk factors and living in the city centre: a DanRisk substudy. J Intern Med 2012; 271: 44450.
  • 63
    Allen RW, Criqui MH, Diez Roux AV, Allison M, Shea S, Detrano R, Sheppard L, Wong ND, Stukovsky KH, Kaufman JD. Fine particulate matter air pollution, proximity to traffic, and aortic atherosclerosis. Epidemiology 2009; 20: 25464.
  • 64
    Iannuzzi A, Verga MC, Renis M, Schiavo A, Salvatore V, Santoriello C, Pazzano D, Licenziati MR, Polverino M. Air pollution and carotid arterial stiffness in children. Cardiol Young 2010; 20: 18690.
  • 65
    Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, Pegoraro V, Melly S, Grillo P, Zanobetti A, Hou L, Bertazzi PA, Mannucci PM, Schwartz J. Living near major traffic roads and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Circulation 2009; 119: 311824.
  • 66
    Kan H, Folsom AR, Cushman M, Rose KM, Rosamond WD, Liao D, Lurman F, London SJ. Traffic exposure and incident venous thromboembolism in the atherosclerosis risk in communities (ARIC) study. J Thromb Haemost 2011; 9: 6728.
  • 67
    Shih RA, Griffin BA, Salkowski N, Jewell A, Eibner C, Bird CE, Liao D, Cushman M, Margolis HG, Eaton CB, Whitsel EA. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and venous thromboembolism in the Women’s Health Initiative Hormone Therapy trials. Environ Health Perspect 2011; 119: 32631.
  • 68
    Brook R, Brook J, Urch B, Vincent R, Rajagopalan S, Silverman F. Inhalation of fine particulate air pollution and ozone causes acute arterial vasoconstriction in healthy adults. Circulation 2002; 105: 15346.
  • 69
    Peretz A, Sullivan JH, Leotta DF, Trenga CA, Sands FN, Allen J, Carlsten C, Wilkinson CW, Gill EA, Kaufman JD. Diesel exhaust inhalation elicits acute vasoconstriction in vivo. Environ Health Perspect 2008; 116: 93742.
  • 70
    Lundback M, Mills NL, Lucking A, Barath S, Donaldson K, Newby DE, Sandström T, Blomberg A. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man. Part Fibre Toxicol 2009; 6: 7.
  • 71
    Brook RD, Bard RL, Burnett RT, Shin HH, Vette A, Croghan C, Phillips M, Rodes C, Thornburg J, Williams R. Differences in blood pressure and vascular responses associated with ambient fine particulate matter exposures measured at the personal versus community level. Occup Environ Med 2011; 68: 22430.
  • 72
    Brook RD, Urch B, Dvonch JT, Bard RL, Speck M, Keeler G, Morishita M, Marsik FJ, Kamal AS, Kaciroti N, Harkema J, Corey P, Silverman F, Gold DR, Wellenius G, Mittleman MA, Rajagopalan S, Brook JR. Insights into the mechanisms and mediators of the effects of air pollution exposure on blood pressure and vascular function in healthy humans. Hypertension 2009; 54: 65967.
  • 73
    Dales R, Liu L, Szyszkowicz M, Dalipaj M, Willey J, Kulka R, Ruddy TD. Particulate air pollution and vascular reactivity: the bus stop study. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2007; 81: 15964.
  • 74
    Mills N, Törnqvist H, Robinson S, Gonzalez M, Darnley K, MacNee W, Boon NA, Donaldson K, Blomberg A, Sandstrom T, Newby DE. Diesel exhaust inhalation causes vascular dysfunction and impaired endogenous fibrinolysis. Circulation 2005; 112: 39306.
  • 75
    Mills NL, Miller MR, Lucking AJ, Beveridge J, Flint L, Boere AJ, Fokkens PH, Boon NA, Sandstrom T, Blomberg A, Duffin R, Donaldson K, Hadoke PW, Cassee FR, Newby DE. Combustion-derived nanoparticulate induces the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation. Eur Heart J 2011; 32: 266071.
  • 76
    Langrish JP, Lundbäck M, Mills NL, Johnston NR, Webb DJ, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE. Contribution of endothelin 1 to the vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation in humans. Hypertension 2009; 54: 9105.
  • 77
    Miller MR, Borthwick SJ, Shaw CA, McLean SG, McClure D, Mills NL, Duffin R, Donaldson K, Megson IL, Hadoke PW, Newby DE. Direct impairment of vascular function by diesel exhaust particulate through reduced bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide induced by superoxide free radicals. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117: 6116.
  • 78
    Peters A, Perz S, Dfiring A, Stieber J, Koenig W, Wichmann HE. Increases in heart rate during an air pollution episode. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 10948.
  • 79
    Gold DR, Litonjua A, Schwartz J, Lovett E, Larson A, Nearing B, Allen G, Verrier R. Ambient air pollution and heart rate variability. Circulation 2000; 101: 126773.
  • 80
    Magari SR, Hauser R, Schwartz J, Williams PL, Smith TJ, Christiani DC. Association of heart rate variability with occupational and environmental exposure to particulate air pollution. Circulation 2001; 104: 98691.
  • 81
    Devlin RB, Ghio AJ, Kehrl H, Sanders G, Cascio W. Elderly humans exposed to concentrated air pollution particles have decreased heart rate variability. Eur Respir J Suppl 2003; 40: 76s80s.
  • 82
    Reed MJ, Robertson CE, Addison PS. Heart rate variability measurements and the prediction of ventricular arrhythmias. QJM 2005; 98: 8795.
  • 83
    Rich DQ, Schwartz J, Mittleman MA, Link M, Luttmann-Gibson H, Catalano PJ, Speizer F, Dockery DW. Association of short-term ambient air pollution concentrations and ventricular arrhythmias. Am J Epidemiol 2005; 161: 112332.
  • 84
    Lanki T, Hoek G, Timonen KL, Peters A, Tiittanen P, Vanninen E, Pekkanen J. Hourly variation in fine particle exposure is associated with transiently increased risk of ST segment depression. Occup Environ Med 2008; 65: 7826.
  • 85
    Mills N, Törnqvist H, Gonzales M, Vink E, Robinson SD, Söderberg S, Boon NA, Donaldson K, Sandström T, Blomberg A, Newby DE. Ischemic and thrombotic effects of dilute diesel-exhaust inhalation in men with coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 107582.
  • 86
    Langrish JP, Li X, Wang S, Lee MM, Barnes GD, Miller MR, Cassee FR, Boon NA, Donaldson K, Li J, Li L, Mills NL, Newby DE, Jiang L. Reducing personal exposure to particulate air pollution improves cardiovascular health in patients with coronary heart disease. Environ Health Perspect 2012; 120: 36772.
  • 87
    Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Dinsdale D, Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF, Nemery B. Diesel exhaust particle in lung acutely enhance experimental peripheral thrombosis. Circulation 2003; 107: 12028.
  • 88
    Nemmar A, Nemery B, Hoet PH, Vermylen J, Hoylaerts MF. Pulmonary inflammation and thrombogenicity caused by diesel particles in hamsters: role of histamine. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2003; 168: 136672.
  • 89
    Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Vermylen J, Nemery B, Hoylaerts MF. Pharmacological stabilization of mastcells abrogates late thrombotic events induced by diesel exhaust particles in hamsters. Circulation 2004; 110: 16707.
  • 90
    Nemmar A, Hoet PH, Vandervoort P, Dinsdale D, Nemery B, Hoylaerts MF. Enhanced peripheral thrombogenicity after lung inflammation is mediated by platelet-leukocyte activation: role of P-selectin. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 121726.
  • 91
    Lucking A, Lundback M, Mills N, Faratian D, Barath SL, Pourazar J, Cassee FR, Donaldson K, Boon NA, Badimon JJ, Sandstrom T, Blomberg A, Newby DE. Diesel exhaust inhalation increases thrombus formation in man. Eur Heart J 2008; 29: 304351.
  • 92
    Peters A, Döring A, Wichmann HE, Koenig W. Increased plasma viscosity during an air pollution episode: a link to mortality? Lancet 1997; 349: 15827.
  • 93
    Ghio AJ, Hall A, Bassett MA, Cascio WE, Devlin RB. Exposure to concentrated ambient air particles alters hematologic indices in humans. Inhal Toxicol 2003; 15: 146578.
  • 94
    Pekkanen J, Brunner E, Anderson H, Tiitanen P, Atkinson R. Daily concentrations of air pollution and plasma fibrinogen in London. Occup Environ Med 2000; 57: 81822.
  • 95
    Baccarelli A, Zanobetti A, Martinelli I, Grillo P, Hou L, Giacomini S, Bonzini M, Lanzani G, Mannucci PM, Bertazzi PA, Schwartz J. Effects of exposure to air pollution on blood coagulation. J Thromb Haemost 2007; 5: 25260.
  • 96
    Bonzini M, Tripodi A, Artoni A, Tarantini L, Marinelli B, Bertazzi PA, Apostoli P, Baccarelli A. Effects of inhalable particulate matter on blood coagulation. J Thromb Haemost 2011; 8: 6628.
  • 97
    Bucciarelli P, Martinelli I, Artoni A, Passamonti S, Previtali E, Merati G, Tripodi A, Mannucci PM. Circulating microparticles and risk of venous thromboembolism. Thromb Res 2012; 129: 5917.
  • 98
    Emmerechts J, Jacobs A, Van Kerchckhoven S, Loyen S, Mathieu A, Fierens F, Nemery B, Nawrot TS, Hoylaerts MF. Air pollution-associated procoagulant changes: the role of circulating microvesicles. J Thromb Haemost 2012; 10: 96106.
  • 99
    Ghio A, Kim C, Devlin R. Concentrated ambient air particles induce mild pulmonary inflammation in healthy human volunteers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 162: 9818.
  • 100
    van Eeden SF, Tan WC, Suwa T, Mukae H, Terashima T, Fujii T, Qui D, Vincent R, Hogg JC. Cytokines involved in the systemic inflammatory response induced by exposure to particulate matter air pollutants (PM(10)). Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001; 164: 82630.
  • 101
    Törnqvist H, Mills N, Gonzalez M, Miller MR, Robinson SD, Megson IL, Macnee W, Donaldson K, Söderberg S, Newby DE, Sandström T, Blomberg A. Persistent endothelial dysfunction in humans after diesel exhaust inhalation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007; 176: 395400.
  • 102
    Behndig AF, Mudway I, Brown J, Stenfors N, Helleday R, Duggan ST, Wilson SJ, Boman C, Cassee FR, Frew AJ, Kelly FJ, Sandström T, Blomberg A. Airway antioxidant and inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust exposure in healthy humans. Eur Respir J 2006; 27: 35965.
  • 103
    Kampfrath T, Maiseyeu A, Ying Z, Shah Z, Deiuliis JA, Xu X, Kherada N, Brook RD, Reddy KM, Padture NP, Parthasarathy S, Chen LC, Moffatt-Bruce S, Sun Q, Morawietz H, Rajagopalan S. Chronic fine particulate matter exposure induces systemic vascular dysfunction via NADPH oxidase and TLR4 pathways. Circ Res 2011; 108: 71626.
  • 104
    Sun Q, Wang A, Jin X, Natanzon A, Duquaine D, Brook RD, Aguinaldo JG, Fayad ZA, Fuster V, Lippmann M, Chen LC, Rajagopalan S. Long-term air pollution exposure and acceleration of atherosclerosis and vascular inflammation in an animal model. JAMA 2005; 294: 300310.
  • 105
    Suwa T, Hogg J, Quinlan K, Ohgami A, Vincent R, Eeden SVD. Particulate air pollution induces progression of atherosclerosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 39: 93542.
  • 106
    Bai N, Kido T, Suzuki H, Yang G, Kavanagh TJ, Kaufman JD, Rosenfeld ME, van Breemen C, Eeden SF. Changes in atherosclerotic plaques induced by inhalation of diesel exhaust. Atherosclerosis 2011; 216: 299306.
  • 107
    Lund AK, Lucero J, Harman M, Madden MC, McDonald JD, Seagrave JC, Campen MJ. The oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor mediates vascular effects of inhaled vehicle emissions. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 184: 8291.
  • 108
    Møller P, Loft S. Oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as biomarkers of exposure to air pollution. Environ Health Perspect 2010; 118: 112636.