• 1
    Gando S, Sawamura A, Hayakawa M. Trauma, shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Ann Surg 2011; 254: 1019.
  • 2
    Bouillon B, Brohi K, Hess JR, Holcomb JB, Parr MJ, Hoyt DB. Educational initiative on critical bleeding in trauma: Chicago, July 11–13, 2008. J Trauma 2010; 68: 22530.
  • 3
    Taylor FBJ. Responses of anticoagulant pathways in disseminated intravascular coagulation. Semin Thromb Haemost 2001; 27: 61931.
  • 4
    Taylor FBJ, Toh CH, Hoots WK, Wada H, Levi M. Towards definition, clinical and laboratory criteria, and a scoring system for disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Haemost 2001; 86: 132730.
  • 5
    Shaz BH, Winkler AM, James AB, Hillyer CD, MacLeod JB. Pathophysiology of early trauma-induced coagulopathy: emerging evidence for hemodilution and coagulation factor depletion. J Trauma 2011; 70: 14017.
  • 6
    Brohi K, Cohen MJ, Ganter MT, Matthay MA, Mackersie RC, Pittet JF. Acute traumatic coagulopathy: initiated by hypoperfusion. Modulated through the protein C pathway? Ann Surg 2007; 245: 81218.
  • 7
    Tauber H, Innerhofer P, Breitkopf R, Westermann I, Beer R, Attal RE, Strasak A, Mittermayr M. Prevalence and impact of abnormal ROTEM assays in severe blunt trauma: results of the ‘Diagnosis and Treatment of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy (DIA-TRE-TIC) study’. Br J Anaesth 2011; 107: 37887.
  • 8
    Ganter MT, Pittet JF. New insight into acute coagulopathy in trauma patients. Best Pract Res Clin Anesthesiol 2010; 24: 1525.
  • 9
    Dunbar NM, Chandler WL. Thrombin generation in trauma patients. Transfusion 2009; 49: 265260.
  • 10
    Chandler WL. Procoagulant activity in trauma patients. Am J Clin Pathol 2010; 134: 906.
  • 11
    Sawamura A, Hayakawa M, Gando S, Kubota N, Sugano M, Wada T, Katabami K. Application of the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine disseminated intravascular coagulation diagnostic criteria for patients at an early phase of trauma. Thromb Res 2009; 124: 70610.
  • 12
    Levi M, Toh CH, Thachil J, Watson HG. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Br J Haematol 2009; 145: 2433.
  • 13
    CRASH-2 collaborators. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant hemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 2332.
  • 14
    CRASH-2 collaborators. The importance of early treatment with tranexamic acid in bleeding trauma patients: an exploratory analysis of the CRASH-2 randomized controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 377: 1096101.
  • 15
    Rizoli S, Nascimento B, Key N, Tien HC, Muraca S, Pinto R, Khalifa M, Plotkin A, Callum J. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy in the first 24 hours after trauma: the association between ISTH score and anatomopathologic evidence. J Trauma 2011; 71: S4417.
  • 16
    Cohen MJ, Call M, Nelson M, Calfee CS, Esmon CT, Brohi K, Pittet JF. Critical role of activated protein C in early coagulopathy and later organ failure, infection and death in trauma patients. Ann Surg 2012; 255: 37985.