• 1
    Centre for Maternal and Child Enquiries (CMACE). Saving mothers’ lives: reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006–08. The eighth report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom. BJOG2011; 118(Suppl. 1): 1203.
  • 2
    The Acute Management of Thrombosis and Embolism During Pregnancy and the Puerperium. Giudeline no. 37b. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2007. Accessed 4 April 2011.
  • 3
    Rodger M. Evidence base for the management of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program2010; 2010: 17380.
  • 4
    Chunilal SD, Bates SM. Venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: diagnosis, management and prevention. Thromb Haemost2009; 101: 42838.
  • 5
    Pomp ER, Lenselink AM, Rosendaal FR, Doggen CJ. Pregnancy, the postpartum period and prothrombotic defects: risk of venous thrombosis in the MEGA study. J Thromb Haemost2008; 6: 6327.
  • 6
    Bates SM, Greer IA, Middeldorp S, Veenstra DL, Prabulos AM, Vandvik PO; American College of Chest Physicians. VTE, thrombophilia, antithrombotic therapy, and pregnancy: antithrombotic therapy and prevention of thrombosis, 9th edn: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest2012; 141(Suppl. 2): e691S736S.
  • 7
    Bates SM. Treatment and prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. Thromb Res2003; 108: 97106.
  • 8
    Ginsberg JS, Bates SM. Management of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy. J Thomb Haemost2003; 1: 143542.
  • 9
    Greer IA, Nelson-Piercy C. Low molecular-weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Blood2005; 106: 4017.
  • 10
    Marik PE, Plante LA. Venous thromboembolic disease and pregnancy. N Engl J Med2008; 359: 202533.
  • 11
    Che Yaakob CA, Dzarr AA, Ismail AA, Zuky Nik Lah NA, Ho JJ. Anticoagulant therapy for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev2010; 6: CD007801.
  • 12
    McGinn T, Wyer PC, Newman TB, Keitz S, Leipzig R, For GG, for Evidence-Based Medicine Teaching Tips Working Group. Tips for learners of evidence-based medicine: 3. Measures of observer variability (kappa statistic). CMAJ2004; 171: 136973.
  • 13
    Schulman S, Kearon C, on behalf of the subcommittee on control of anticoagulation of the Scientific and Standardization committee of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Definition of major bleeding in clinical investigations of antihemostatic medicinal products in non-surgical patients. Scientific and Standardization Committee Communication. J Thromb Haemost2005; 3: 6924.
  • 14
    Prevention and Management of Postpartum Haemorrhage. Guideline no. 52. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2009. Accessed 4 April 2012.
  • 15
    Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, Olkin I, Williamson GD, Rennie D, Moher D, Becker BJ, Sipe TA, Thacker SB. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE) group. JAMA2000; 283: 200812.
  • 16
    Wells GA, Shea B, O’Connell D, Peterson J, Welch V, Losos M, Tugwell P. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for Assessing the Quality of Non Randomised Studies in Meta-Analyses. Accessed January 2012.
  • 17
    DerSimonian R, Laird N. Meta-analysis in clinical trials. Control Clin Trials1986; 7: 17788.
  • 18
    Higgins JP, Thompson SG, Deeks JJ, Altman DG. Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ2003; 327: 55760.
  • 19
    Aburahma AF, Boland JP. Management of deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity in pregnancy: a challenging dilemma. Am Surg1999; 65: 1647.
  • 20
    Bablmann E, Hoffmann M, Meyer K, Shinzel H, Merz E, Trautmann K. Diagnostik und therapie der tiefen Becken-Beinvenenthrombose in der Schwangershaft. Zentralbl Gynacol2000; 122: 37482.
  • 21
    Blanco-Molina A, Rota L, Di Micco P, Brenner B, Trujillo-Santos D, Ruiz-Gamietea A, Monreal M; RIETE Investigators. Venous thrombosis during pregnancy, postpartum or during contraceptive use. Thromb Haemost2010; 103: 30611.
  • 22
    Clark NP, Delate T, Witt DM, Parker S, McDuffie R. A descriptive evaluation of unfractionated heparin use during pregnancy. J Thromb Thrombolysis2009; 27: 26773.
  • 23
    Daskalakis G, Antsaklis A, Papageorgiou I, Michalas S. Thrombosis prophylaxis after treatment during pregnancy. Eur J Ostet Gynecol Reprod Biol1997; 74: 1657.
  • 24
    Donnelly J, Byrne J, Murphy K, McAuliffe F. Obstetric outcome with low molecular weight heparin therapy during pregnancy. Ir Med J2012; 105: 279.
  • 25
    Jacobsen AF, Qvigstad E, Sandset PM. Low molecular weight heparin (dalteparin) for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy. BJOG2003; 110: 13944.
  • 26
    Narin C, Reyhanoglu H, Tulek B, Onoglu R, Ege E, Sariqul A, Yeniterzi M, Durmaz I. Comparison of different dose regimens of enoxaparin in deep vein thrombosis therapy in pregnancy. Adv Ther2008; 25: 58594.
  • 27
    Nelson-Piercy C, Powrie R, Borg JY, Rodger M, Talbot DJ, Stinson J, Greer IA. Tinzaparin use in pregnancy: an international, retrospective study of the safety and efficacy profile. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol2011; 159: 2939.
  • 28
    O’Connor DJ, Scher LA, Gargiulo NJ, Jang J, Suggs WD, Lipsitz EC. Incidence and characteristics of venous thromboembolic disease during pregnancy and postnatal period: a contemporary series. Ann Vasc Surg2011; 25: 914.
  • 29
    Rodie VA, Thomson AJ, Stewart FM, Quinn AJ, Walker ID, Greer IA. Low molecular weight heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in pregnancy: a case series. BJOG2002; 109: 10204.
  • 30
    Roshani S, Cohn DM, Stehouwer AC, Wolf H, van der Post JA, Buller HR, Kamphuisen PW, Middeldorp S. Incidence of postpartum haemorrhage in women receiving therapeutic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin: results of a retrospective cohort study. BMJ Open2011; 1: e000257.
  • 31
    Rowan JA, McLintock C, Taylor RS, North RA. Prophylactic and therapeutic enoxaparin during pregnancy: indications, outcomes and monitoring. Aust N Z J Ostet Gynaecol2003; 43: 1238.
  • 32
    Ulander VM, Stenqist P, Kaaja R. Treatment of deep venous thrombosis with low molecular weight heparin during pregnancy. Thromb Res2002; 106: 1317.
  • 33
    Voke J, Keidan J, Pavord S, Spencer NH, Hunt BJ. The management of antenatal venous thromboembolism in the UK and Ireland: a prospective multicentre observational survey. BJH2007; 139: 54558.
  • 34
    Barillari G, Springolo F, Daminato R, Driul L, Turello M, Marchesoni D. Safety and efficacy of nadroparin for the management of venous thromboembolism or thrombophilia in pregnancy. J Thromb Haemost2007; 5(Suppl. 2): P-S-623.
  • 35
    Mitic G, Kovac M, Radovic P, Novakov-Mikic A. The incidence of hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications of therapeutic and prophylactic low molecular weight heparin regimen during pregnancy. J Thromb Haemost2011; 9(Suppl. 2): P-WE-343.
  • 36
    Parent F, Jais X, Wolf M, Boyer-Neuman C, Simonneau G. Treatment of VTE during pregnancy with a once daily regimen of LMWH. J Thromb Haemost2007; 5(Suppl. 2): P-T-607.
  • 37
    Levine M, Gent M, Hirsh J, Leclerc J, Anderson D, Weitz J, Ginsberg J, Turpie AG, Demers C, Kovacs M. A comparison of low molecular weight heparin administered primarily at home with unfractionated heparin administered in the hospital for proximal deep vein thrombosis. N Engl J Med1996; 334: 67781.
  • 38
    Rath WH. Postpartum hemorrhage – update on problems of definitions and diagnosis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand2011; 90: 4218.
  • 39
    Oyelese Y, Ananth CV. Postpartum hemorrhage: epidemiology, risk factors, and causes. Clin Obstet Gynecol2010; 53: 14756.
  • 40
    Lindhoff-Last E, Kreutzanbeck HJ, Magnani HN. Treatment of 51 patients with danaparoid because of heparin intolerance. J Thromb Haemost2005; 3(Suppl. 1): P0508.