• 1
    Osterberg L, Blaschke T. Adherence to medication. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 48797.
  • 2
    Fischer MA, Stedman MR, Lii J, Vogeli C, Shrank WH, Brookhart MA, Weissman JS. Primary medication non-adherence: analysis of 195,930 electronic prescriptions. J Gen Intern Med 2010; 25: 28490.
  • 3
    Claxton AJ, Cramer J, Pierce C. A systematic review of the associations between dose regimens and medication compliance. Clin Ther 2001; 23: 1296310.
  • 4
    Kneeland PP, Fang MC. Current issues in patient adherence and persistence: focus on anticoagulants for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolism. Patient Prefer Adherence 2010; 4: 5160.
  • 5
    Platt AB, Localio AR, Brensinger CM, Cruess DG, Christie JD, Gross R, Parker CS, Price M, Metlay JP, Cohen A, Newcomb CW, Strom BL, Laskin MS, Kimmel SE. Risk factors for nonadherence to warfarin: results from the IN-RANGE study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2008; 17: 85360.
  • 6
    Bailey JE, Wan JY, Tang J, Ghani MA, Cushman WC. Antihypertensive medication adherence, ambulatory visits, and risk of stroke and death. J Gen Intern Med 2010; 25: 495503.
  • 7
    Berg JS, Dischler J, Wagner DJ, Raia JJ, Palmer-Shevlin N. Medication compliance: a health care problem. Ann Pharmacother 1993; 9: S14.
  • 8
    Kimmel SE, Chen Z, Price M, Parker CS, Metlay JP, Christie JD, Brensinger CM, Newcomb CW, Samaha FF, Gross R. The influence of patient adherence on anticoagulation control with warfarin: results from the International Normalized Ratio Adherence and Genetics (IN-RANGE) study. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 22935.
  • 9
    Avila CW, Aliti GB, Feijó MK, Rabelo ER. Pharmacological adherence to oral anticoagulant and factors that influence the International Normalized Ratio Stability. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem 2011; 19: 1825.
  • 10
    van der Meer FJ, Briët E, Vandenbroucke JP, Srámek DI, Versluijs MH, Rosendaal FR. The role of compliance as a cause of instability in oral anticoagulant therapy. Br J Haematol 1997; 98: 893900.
  • 11
    Parker CS, Chen Z, Price M, Gross R, Metlay JP, Christie JD, Brensinger CM, Newcomb CW, Samaha FF, Kimmel SE. Adherence to warfarin assessed by electronic pill caps, clinician assessment and patient reports: results from the IN-RANGE study. J Gen Intern Med 2007; 22: 125459.
  • 12
    Laporte S, Quenet S, Buchmüller-Cordier A, Reynaud J, Tardy-Poncet B, Thirion C, Decousus H, Mismetti P. Compliance and stability of INR of two oral anticoagulants with different half-lives: a randomised trial. Thromb Haemost 2003; 89: 45867.
  • 13
    LaVitola Pde L, Sampaio RO, Oliveira WA, Boer B, Tarasoutchi F, Spina GS, Grinberg M. Warfarin or aspirin in embolism prevention in patients with mitral valvulopathy and atrial fibrillation. Arq Bras Cardiol 2010; 95: 74955.
  • 14
    Orensky IA, Holdford DA. Predictors of noncompliance with warfarin therapy in an outpatient anticoagulation clinic. Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25: 18018.
  • 15
    van Walraven C, Jennings A, Oake N, Fergusson D, Forster AJ. Effect of study setting on anticoagulation control: a systematic review and metaregression. Chest 2006; 129: 115566.
  • 16
    Loke YK, Kwok CS. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban for prevention of venous thromboembolism – systematic review and adjusted indirect comparison. J Clin Pharm Ther 2011; 36: 11124.
  • 17
    Samama MM, Gerotziafas GT. Newer anticoagulants in 2009. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2010; 29: 92104.
  • 18
    Connolly SJ, Ezekowitz MD, Yusuf S, Eikelboom J, Oldgren J, Parekh A, Pogue J, Reilly PA, Themeles E, Varrone J, Wang S, Alings M, Xavier D, Zhu J, Diaz R, Lewis BS, Darius H, Diener HC, Joyner CD; the RE-LY Steering Committee and Investigators. Dabigatran versus Warfarin in patients with Atrial Fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 113951.
  • 19
    Patel MR, Mahaffey KW, Garg J, Pan G, Singer DE, Hacke W, Breithard G, Halperin JL, Hankey GJ, Piccini JP, Becker RC, Nessel CC, Paolini JF, Berkowitz SD, Fox KA, Califf RM; ROCKET AF investigators. Rivaroxaban versus warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 883891.
  • 20
    Olsson SB; Executive Steering Committee of the SPORTIF III investigators. Stroke prevention with the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran compared with warfarin in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (SPORTIF III): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 362: 169198.
  • 21
    Albers GW, Diener HC, Frison L, Grind M, Nevinson M, Partridge S, Halperin JL, Horrow J, Olsson SB, Petersen P, Vahanian A; SPORTIF executive steering committee for the SPORTIF V investigators. Ximelagatran vs warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: a randomized trial. JAMA 2005; 293: 6908.
  • 22
    Granger CB, Alexander JH, McMurray JJ, Lopes RD, Hylek EM, Hanna M, Al-Khalidi HR, Ansell J, Atar D, Avezum A, Bahit MC, Diaz R, Easton JD, Ezekowitz JA, Flaker G, Garcia D, Geraldes M, Gersh BJ, Golitsyn S; ARISTOTLE Committees and Investigators. Apixaban versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 2011; 365: 98192.
  • 23
    The Einstein Investigators, Bauersachs R, Berkowitz SD, Brenner B, Bueller HR, Decousus H, Gallus AS, Lensing AW, Misselwitz F, Prins MH, Raskob GE, Segers A, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Bounameaux H, Cohen A, Davidson BL, Piovella F, Schellong S. Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 2499510.
  • 24
    The Einstein-PE Investigators, Büller HR, Prins MH, Lensin AW, Decousus H, Jacobson BF, Minar E, Chlumsky J, Verhamme P, Wells P, Agnelli G, Cohen A, Berkowitz SD, Bounameaux H, Davidson BL, Misselwitz F, Gallus AS, Raskob GE, Schellong S, Segers A. Oral Rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic Pulmonary Embolism. N Engl J Med 2012; 366: 128797.
  • 25
    Schulman S, Kearon C, Kakkar AK, Mismetti P, Schellong S, Eriksson H, Baanstra D, Schnee J, Goldhaber SZ; RE-COVER study group. Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 234252.
  • 26
    Lebel B, Malherbe M, Gouzy S, Parienti JJ, Dutheil JJ, Barrellier MT, Vielpeau C. Oral thromboprophylaxis following total hip replacement: the issue of compliance. Orthop Traum Surg Res 2012; 98: 18692.
  • 27
    Cramer JA, Glassman M, Rienzi V. The relationship between poor medication compliance and seizures. Epilepsy Behav 2002; 3: 33842.
  • 28
    Cramer JA. Effect of partial compliance on cardiovascular medication effectiveness. Heart 2002; 88: 20306.
  • 29
    Cruess DG, Localio AR, Platt AB, Brensinger CM, Christie JD, Gross R, Parker CS, Price M, Metlay JP, Cohen A, Newcomb CW, Strom BL, Kimmel SE. Patient attitudinal and behavioral factors associated with warfarin non-adherence at outpatient anticoagulation clinics. Int J Behav Med 2010; 17: 3342.
  • 30
    Connock M, Stevens C, Fry-Smith A, Jowett S, Fitzmaurice D, Moore D, Song F. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of managing long-term oral anticoagulation therapy: a systematic review and economic modelling. Health Technol Assess 2007; 11: iiiiv.
  • 31
    Statistics Canada. Population Projections for Canada, Provinces and Territories. 2011.
  • 32
    Liu Q, Abba K, Alejandria MM, Balanag VM, Berba RP, Lansang MA. Reminder systems and late patient tracers in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; 4: CD006594.
  • 33
    Kripalani S, Yao X, Haynes RB. Interventions to enhance medication adherence in chronic medical conditions: a systematic review. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 54050.
  • 34
    McDonald HP, Garg AX, Haynes RB. Interventions to enhance patient adherence to medication prescriptions: scientific review. JAMA 2002; 288: 286879.
  • 35
    Wei J, Hollin I, Kachnowski S. A review of the use of mobile phone text messaging in clinical and healthy behaviour interventions. J Telemed Telecare 2011; 17: 418.