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Keywords:

  • clot resistance;
  • clotting deficiency;
  • TAFI ;
  • thrombin;
  • warfarin

Summary

Background

Severe clotting deficiencies are associated with enhanced in vitro fibrinolysis due to insufficient thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) activation. Because oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) with warfarin causes a partial deficiency of vitamin K-dependent factors, its effect on clot lysability remains unclear.

Objectives

To evaluate plasma and blood fibrinolytic capacity in patients under stable OAT (n = 221) as compared with controls (n = 132).

Methods

Fibrinolysis resistance of plasma (turbidimetry) and blood (thromboelastography) clots was calculated as the lysis time of tissue factor-induced clots exposed to 30 and 100 ng mL−1 t-PA, respectively.

Results

Plasma PAI-1 was similar in the two groups, whereas TAFI was slightly lower in patients. OAT plasma clots lysed faster than controls (P = 0.001). The addition of the TAFIa inhibitor PTCI reduced lysis time by 14% in OAT and 34% in controls, and the difference between the groups disappeared. Similar data were obtained with blood clots. Thrombin and TAFIa generation in OAT plasma amounted to roughly 50% of controls, supporting a reduced thrombin-dependent TAFI activation. Clot resistance of OAT plasma was normalized by Ba-citrate plasma eluate or prothrombin but not by BaSO4 serum eluate, rFVIIa or FX. Surprisingly, circulating levels of TAFIa and its inactive derivative TAFIai were higher in warfarin patients (P < 0.0001) and correlated with plasmin-antiplasmin (P = 0.0001) but not with prothrombin F1 + 2.

Conclusions

OAT enhances both plasma and blood fibrinolysis by reducing thrombin-dependent TAFI activation, a phenomenon largely determined by low prothrombin levels. At variance with in vitro data, ‘basal’ in vivo TAFIa/ai levels seem related to plasmin rather than thrombin generation.