• 1
    Toschi V, Lettino M. Fondaparinux: pharmacology and clinical experience in cardiovascular medicine. Mini Rev Med Chem 2007; 7: 3837.
  • 2
    Warkentin TE, Maurer BT, Aster RH. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia associated with fondaparinux. N Engl J Med 2007; 356: 26535.
  • 3
    Rota E, Bazzan M, Fantino G. Fondaparinux-related thrombocytopenia in a previous low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)-induced heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Thromb Haemost 2008; 99: 77981.
  • 4
    Salem M, Elrefai S, Shrit MA, Warkentin TE. Fondaparinux thromboprophylaxis-associated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia syndrome complicated by arterial thrombotic stroke. Thromb Haemost 2010; 104: 10712.
  • 5
    Blossom DB, Kallen AJ, Patel PR, Elward A, Robinson L, Gao G, Langer R, Perkins KM, Jaeger JL, Kurkjian KM, Jones M, Schillie SF, Shehab N, Ketterer D, Venkataraman G, Kishimoto TK, Shriver Z, McMahon AW, Austen KF, Kozlowski S, et al. Outbreak of adverse reactions associated with contaminated heparin. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 267484.
  • 6
    Warkentin TE, Crowther MA. Reversing anticoagulants both old and new. Can J Anaesth 2002; 49: S1125.
  • 7
    Prechel M, Walenga JM. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: an update. Semin Thromb Hemost 2012; 38: 48396.
  • 8
    Nybo M, Madsen JS. Serious anaphylactic reactions due to protamine sulfate: a systematic literature review. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2008; 103: 1926.
  • 9
    McLaughlin KE, Dunning J. In patients post cardiac surgery do high doses of protamine cause increased bleeding? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2003; 2: 4246.
  • 10
    Bianchini EP, Fazavana J, Picard V, Borgel D. Development of a recombinant antithrombin variant as a potent antidote to fondaparinux and other heparin derivatives. Blood 2011; 117: 205460.
  • 11
    Diguet N, Mallat Y, Ladouce R, Clodic G, Prola A, Tritsch E, Blanc J, Larcher JC, Delcayre C, Samuel JL, Friguet B, Bolbach G, Li Z, Mericskay M. Muscle creatine kinase deficiency triggers both actin depolymerization and desmin disorganization by advanced glycation end products in dilated cardiomyopathy. J Biol Chem 2011; 286: 3500719.
  • 12
    Stone SR, Hofsteenge J. Kinetics of the inhibition of thrombin by hirudin. Biochemistry 1986; 25: 46228.
  • 13
    Patthy L, Thesz J. Origin of the selectivity of alpha-dicarbonyl reagents for arginyl residues of anion-binding sites. Eur J Biochem 1980; 105: 38793.
  • 14
    Mathews JM, Watson SL, Snyder RW, Burgess JP, Morgan DL. Reaction of the butter flavorant diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) with N-alpha-acetylarginine: a model for epitope formation with pulmonary proteins in the etiology of obliterative bronchiolitis. J Agric Food Chem 2010; 58: 127618.
  • 15
    Raja SM, Chhablani N, Swanson R, Thompson E, Laffan M, Lane DA, Olson ST. Deletion of P1 arginine in a novel antithrombin variant (antithrombin London) abolishes inhibitory activity but enhances heparin affinity and is associated with early onset thrombosis. J Biol Chem 2003; 278: 1368895.
  • 16
    Pike RN, Potempa J, Skinner R, Fitton HL, McGraw WT, Travis J, Owen M, Jin L, Carrell RW. Heparin-dependent modification of the reactive center arginine of antithrombin and consequent increase in heparin binding affinity. J Biol Chem 1997; 272: 196525.
  • 17
    Chuang YJ, Swanson R, Raja SM, Bock SC, Olson ST. The antithrombin P1 residue is important for target proteinase specificity but not for heparin activation of the serpin. Characterization of P1 antithrombin variants with altered proteinase specificity but normal heparin activation. Biochemistry 2001; 40: 66709.
  • 18
    Castellone DD, van Cott EM. Laboratory monitoring of new anticoagulants. Am J Hematol 2010; 85: 1857.
  • 19
    Ni Ainle F, Preston RJ, Jenkins PV, Nel HJ, Johnson JA, Smith OP, White B, Fallon PG, O'Donnell JS. Protamine sulfate down-regulates thrombin generation by inhibiting factor V activation. Blood 2009; 114: 165865.
  • 20
    Bauer KA. Reversal of antithrombotic agents. Am J Hematol 2012; 87(Suppl 1): S11926.
  • 21
    Elmer J, Wittels KA. Emergency reversal of pentasaccharide anticoagulants: a systematic review of the literature. Transfus Med 2012; 22: 10815.
  • 22
    Abshire T, Kenet G. Safety update on the use of recombinant factor VIIa and the treatment of congenital and acquired deficiency of factor VIII or IX with inhibitors. Haemophilia 2008; 14: 898902.
  • 23
    Kimmel SE, Sekeres MA, Berlin JA, Ellison N, Di Sesa VJ, Strom BL. Risk factors for clinically important adverse events after protamine administration following cardiopulmonary bypass. J Am Coll Cardiol 1998; 32: 191622.
  • 24
    Viaro F, Dalio MB, Evora PR. Catastrophic cardiovascular adverse reactions to protamine are nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate dependent and endothelium mediated: should methylene blue be the treatment of choice? Chest 2002; 122: 10616.
  • 25
    Lindblad B, Wakefield TW, Whitehouse WM Jr, Stanley JC. The effect of protamine sulfate on platelet function. Scand J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1988; 22: 559.
  • 26
    Barstad RM, Stephens RW, Hamers MJ, Sakariassen KS. Protamine sulphate inhibits platelet membrane glycoprotein Ib-von Willebrand factor activity. Thromb Haemost 2000; 83: 3347.
  • 27
    Brecher AS, Roland AR. Protamine inhibits formation of the covalent factor IXa-anti-thrombin complex. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2008; 19: 5916.
  • 28
    Coggin MH, Ahl R, Roland A, Beck D, Brecher AS. Protamine sulfate stimulates degradation of factor Xa and the factor Xa-antithrombin complex. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2011; 22: 24753.
  • 29
    Ordonez A, Martinez-Martinez I, Corrales FJ, Miqueo C, Minano A, Vicente V, Corral J. Effect of citrullination on the function and conformation of antithrombin. FEBS J 2009; 276: 676372.
  • 30
    Yusuf AM, Warkentin TE, Arsenault KA, Whitlock R, Eikelboom JW. Prognostic importance of preoperative anti-PF4/heparin antibodies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A systematic review. Thromb Haemost 2012; 107: 814.
  • 31
    Linkins LA, Dans AL, Moores LK, Bona R, Davidson BL, Schulman S, Crowther M. Treatment and prevention of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest 2012; 141: e495S530S.
  • 32
    Cooney A, Mann TJ. Recent experiences with hexadimethrine for neutralizing heparin after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anaesth Intensive Care 1999; 27: 298300.
  • 33
    Levy JH, Cormack JG, Morales A. Heparin neutralization by recombinant platelet factor 4 and protamine. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 357.
  • 34
    Demma L, Levy JH. A case series of recombinant platelet factor 4 for heparin reversal after cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesth Analg 2012; 115: 12738.
  • 35
    Stafford-Smith M, Lefrak EA, Qazi AG, Welsby IJ, Barber L, Hoeft A, Dorenbaum A, Mathias J, Rochon JJ, Newman MF. Efficacy and safety of heparinase I versus protamine in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with and without cardiopulmonary bypass. Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 22940.
  • 36
    De Lucia A 3rd, Wakefield TW, Andrews PC, Nichol BJ, Kadell AM, Wrobleski SK, Downing LJ, Stanley JC. Efficacy and toxicity of differently charged polycationic protamine-like peptides for heparin anticoagulation reversal. J Vasc Surg 1993; 18: 4958.
  • 37
    Schick BP, Maslow D, Moshinski A, San Antonio JD. Novel concatameric heparin-binding peptides reverse heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin anticoagulant activities in patient plasma in vitro and in rats in vivo. Blood 2004; 103: 135663.
  • 38
    Cushing DJ, Cooper WD, Cohen ML, McVoy JR, Sobel M, Harris RB. Reversal of heparin-induced increases in aPTT in the rat by PM102, a novel heparin antagonist. Eur J Pharmacol 2010; 635: 16570.